生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (6): 664-674.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08324

所属专题: 群落中的物种多样性:格局与机制

• 论文 • 上一篇    

中国自然保护区分布现状及合理布局的探讨

陈雅涵, 唐志尧, 方精云*()   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程与分析模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-09 接受日期:2009-10-30 出版日期:2009-11-20 发布日期:2009-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 方精云
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: jyfang@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(40871030);国家自然科学基金(40701065);国家自然科学基金(40638039);国家重点基础研究发展规划(G2000046801)

Distribution of nature reserves and status of biodiversity protection in China

Yahan Chen, Zhiyao Tang, Jingyun Fang*()   

  1. Department of Ecology, College of Urban & Environmental Sciences, Center for Ecological Research & Education, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2008-12-09 Accepted:2009-10-30 Online:2009-11-20 Published:2009-11-20
  • Contact: Jingyun Fang

摘要:

为了保护中国丰富的生物多样性, 我国已经建立了大量的自然保护区。评价这些保护区的布局对于生物多样性的有效保护无疑是十分重要的。本文收集了截至2007年底我国建立的2,047个保护区的有关资料, 利用地理信息系统技术, 分析了这些保护区的分布现状和生物多样性的保护状况, 包括保护的植被类型、野生保护物种以及热点地区。结果表明: 我国自然保护区的覆盖面积达到145.7万km2, 占中国陆地面积的15.2%, 超过世界平均水平(13.4%); 在我国47种自然植被类型中, 有21种植被类型的被保护面积比例低于10%, 说明这些类型可能没有得到充分的保护。应用Dobson筛除算法对216个保护区中的保护物种进行筛除分析, 发现仅西双版纳、武夷山、长白山、高黎贡山、祁连山5个保护区即包含了381个保护物种(约占总数783种的50%); 前21个保护区可包含占总数75%的保护物种(590种)。根据不同方案划分的生物多样性热点保护地区仍存在一些保护空缺地, 如新疆北部、四川与长江以南地区, 因此, 我国的保护区布局有待进一步改进。

关键词: 自然保护区, 生物多样性保护, 热点地区

Abstract

Assessing the distribution of nature reserves is an important step for conserving biodiversity. We used geographic information system (GIS) to assess the conservation status of vegetation types, endangered plant and animal species, and biodiversity hotspots in China, based on the area, endangered species list and geographic position of 2,047 nature reserves in China. The results showed that, while the proportion of total area protected as nature reserves is higher in China than the world average, of the 47 natural vegetation types in China, 21 (45% of the total) were deficiently protected, with less than 10% of their area included in nature reserves, suggesting that these vegetation types have not been perfectly protected. According to the Dobson complementary algorithm, among 216 nature reserves, the top five priority nature reserves, i.e., Xishuangbanna, Mt. Wuyi, Mt. Changbai, Mt. Gaoligong and Mt. Qilian, contained 381 protected species (~ 50% of the total), and the top 21 priority nature reserves contained 590 protected species (~75% of the total). Nature reserves covered nearly all the hotspots selected by different approaches. However, as there are several areas lacking proper protection, e.g., Northern Xinjiang, Sichuan and South of the Yangtze River, the distribution of Chinese nature reserves needs further improvement.

Key words: nature reserves, biodiversity conservation, hotspots