生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (2): 151-159.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08194

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江口及其邻近水域鱼类浮游生物群落的时空格局

刘淑德1,2, 线薇微1,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院海洋研究所海洋生态与环境重点实验室, 青岛 266071
    2 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-18 接受日期:2009-02-18 出版日期:2009-03-20 发布日期:2009-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 线薇微
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: wwxian@qdio.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大项目(30490233);中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1-YW-08-01)

Temporal and spatial patterns of the ichthyoplankton community in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent waters

Shude Liu1,2, Weiwei Xian1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2008-08-18 Accepted:2009-02-18 Online:2009-03-20 Published:2009-03-20
  • Contact: Weiwei Xian

摘要:

根据2007年长江口及其邻近水域4个航次调查资料, 探讨了该水域的鱼类浮游生物群落物种组成和多样性的季节变化特征。结果表明, 2007年共捕获鱼类浮游生物6,463个, 隶属12目28科45种, 以鳀科丰度最高, 占总丰度的76.5%。长江口鱼类浮游生物包括4种生态类型: 淡水型(2种), 半咸水型(14种), 沿岸型(10种)和近海型(16种)。 其中, 近海型物种个体数量最多, 占2007年长江口鱼类浮游生物总丰度的74.55%。鳀(Engraulis japonicus)在4个季节均有出现, 对长江口鱼类浮游生物丰度贡献最大。鱼类浮游生物在物种组成上存在明显的季节变化: 白氏银汉鱼(Allanetta bleekeri)在春季占绝对优势, 鳀是夏季优势度最高的种类, 秋季除鳀外, 前颌间银鱼(Hemisalanx prognathus)成为优势种; 鱼类浮游生物丰度高度集中在优势种上, 各季节优势种对总丰度贡献超过89%。群落物种数量、丰度、丰富度指数、均匀度指数和多样性指数, 在夏季最高, 春季和秋季次之, 冬季最低。长江口鱼类浮游生物群落物种组成和多样性的季节变化特征体现了鱼类繁殖迁移策略和鱼类对环境变异的响应。

关键词: 长江口, 鱼类浮游生物, 优势种, 生物多样性, 季节变化

Abstract

The composition and diversity of ichthyoplankton species in the Yangtze estuary and adjacent waters (30°45′-32°N, 121°-123°20′E) were analyzed based on four seasonal surveys during 2007. A total of 6,463 individuals, representing 12 orders, 28 families and 45 species, were collected. Engraulidae was the most abundant family comprising 76.5% of all teleost fishes. The ichthyoplankton community was composed of four ecological guilds: freshwater (2 species), brackish (14 species), coastal (10 species) and marine (16 species), of which marine species was the most abundant (74.6% of total abundance). Engraulis japonicus, captured every season, contributed most to total ichthyoplanton abundance. Species composition varied between seasons; in spring, Allanetta bleekeri was the dominant species, while in summer E. japonicus dominated, autumn dominant species were E. japonicus and Hemisalanx prognathus. These dominant species contributed more than 89% of total catch in different seasons. Species number, abundance and diversity peaked in summer, were lower in spring and autumn, and were least in winter. These seasonal variations likely resulted from both migration associated with fish spawning and the environment.

Key words: Yangtze River estuary, ichthyoplankton, dominant species, biodiversity, seasonal variation