生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (4): 389-398.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08014

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

自然保护区社区管理效果分析

刘静, 苗鸿(), 欧阳志云, 徐卫华, 郑华   

  1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-21 接受日期:2008-06-11 出版日期:2008-07-20 发布日期:2008-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 苗鸿
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: hmiao@rcees.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(70573105);宣传教育项目 Propaganda and(education)

Analyzing the effectiveness of community management in Chinese nature reserves

Liu Jing, Miao Hong(), Ouyang Zhiyun, Xu Weihua, Zheng Hua   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
  • Received:2008-01-21 Accepted:2008-06-11 Online:2008-07-20 Published:2008-07-20
  • Contact: Miao Hong

摘要:

目前全球各地开展了一系列评估保护区管理成效的研究工作。2005年, 国家林业局对全国634个自然保护区的管理人员发放了调查问卷, 回收有效问卷535份。本文针对其中的社区参与、社区共管和与社区的协调发展3个指标分析了国内的自然保护区社区管理效果, 并对社区管理效果的得分情况、区域特征、级别特征和影响管理效果的因素进行了分析。结果表明: 我国自然保护区的社区管理水平普遍较低, 3个指标中, 与社区的协调发展得分最高, 为1.85分, 社区参与和社区共管分别为1.15分和1.03分; 各个区域在社区管理效果方面没有显著差异(P>0.05), 华中地区的社区管理效果平均分最高, 为4.26分, 华南地区最低, 为3.73分; 国家级自然保护区的社区管理效果整体上比省级好, 二者存在显著差异(P<0.01)。通过Pearson相关分析得出, 监测与评价、人事管理、职工培训、管理计划和保护区巡护这5个指标与社区管理效果的相关程度较大。为了提高自然保护区社区管理效果, 我们建议着重从有效保护区内的自然资源、建立社区共管机制、建立生态补偿机制、国家和各省统筹拨付保护区经费以及完善职工管理制度几方面入手。

关键词: 自然保护区, 社区管理, 效果评价, 社区参与, 社区共管

Abstract

In recent years, the effectiveness of nature reserve management is being evaluated around the world. In 2005, the State Forestry Administration of P. R. China assessed the management effectiveness of 634 nature reserves (NRs) in China by sending questionnaires to reserve managers, of which 535 were effective. We used these questionnaires to evaluate the effectiveness of community management by calculating indices of participation, co-management, and coordination with local communities. We analyzed scores, regional characteristics, differences between national and local NRs, and factors that influenced scores of these indices. In general, the community management effectiveness in China was not as high as expected. Of the indices, the score of coordination with local communities was the highest, i.e. 1.85, followed by community participation and community co-management, i.e. 1.15 and 1.03 respectively. In addition, the effectiveness of community management in each region had no significant differences (P>0.05). However, the average score of the effectiveness of the NRs in Central China was the highest (i.e. 4.26), and that in South China was lowest (i.e. 3.73). The differences between the effectiveness scores of national and local NRs were statistically significant (P<0.01). On the whole, the national reserves were more effective than local ones. We found that monitoring and evaluation, personnel management, staff training, management plans, and patrolling were correlated with effectiveness of community management. On behalf of improving community management effectiveness, we recommend some accepted accessments such as establishing community co-management mechanisms, establishing ecological compensation mechanisms, allocating assessments fairly to the Central and provincal government budget, and enhancing the employers’ abilities.

Key words: nature reserves, community management, effectiveness evaluation, community participation, community co-management