生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (2): 197-204.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07035

• 论文 • 上一篇    

中国盘羊的地理分布和历史变迁

余玉群*(), 姬明周, 刘楚光, 李克长, 郭松涛   

  1. 西北濒危动物研究所, 西安 710032
  • 收稿日期:2007-02-01 接受日期:2007-07-30 出版日期:2008-03-20 发布日期:2008-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 余玉群
  • 作者简介:*E-mail:yuyuqun@yahoo.com.cn
    西北大学生命科学院博士研究生
  • 基金资助:
    国家林业局“全国盘羊资源专项调查”项目

Geographical distribution and vicissitude of argali, Ovis ammon, in China

Yuqun Yu*(), Mingzhou Ji, Chuguang Liu, Kechang Li, Songtao Guo   

  1. Northwest Institute of Endangered Animal Species, Xi’an 710032
  • Received:2007-02-01 Accepted:2007-07-30 Online:2008-03-20 Published:2008-02-20
  • Contact: Yuqun Yu

摘要:

通过对盘羊(Ovis ammon)化石和岩画分布的分析, 初步探讨自更新世以来我国盘羊的分布趋势和历史变迁。在更新世, 盘羊曾经出现在东北、西北、华北、华中和西南地区, 栖息地以草原、荒漠和山地为主。在黄河中下游, 盘羊分布区开始由黄河以南向黄河以北退缩; 更新世盘羊化石分布点现在已经没有盘羊分布。从盘羊岩画分布看, 石器时代的一些分布点现在还有盘羊, 一些位于现代盘羊分布区的外围, 一些地方现在已经没有盘羊分布; 这个时期盘羊开始从华北地区消失, 栖息地既有山地、丘陵、也有高原。由于来自人类发展的影响, 历史时期盘羊分布区虽然继续缩小, 但保持着连续分布。在野外调查的基础上, 本文介绍新疆以外我国盘羊的现代分布。在祁连山, 盘羊分布于西祁连山。在阿尔金山, 盘羊分布区由两个部分组成, 一是位于与西祁连山连接部的北阿尔金山, 另一是索尔库里以南的南阿尔金山。在昆仑山, 盘羊主要分布在昆仑山口、野牛沟和那仁郭楞河以东的东昆仑山。在西藏, 喜马拉雅山北坡是西藏盘羊的主要分布区。在内蒙古高原, 盘羊主要分布于四王子旗和苏尼特左旗一带。目前, 我国大部分盘羊栖息于山地和高原, 这些地方已成为盘羊最后的自然庇护所。另外, 羌塘高原、藏北无人区、可可西里和中、西昆仑山盘羊非常稀少, 这些地方大部分区域高原面与湖盆相差50-200 m, 不是盘羊理想的栖息地。

关键词: 盘羊, 化石, 岩画, 分布

Abstract

Based on fossils evidence, argali (Ovis ammon) were formerly distributed in northeastern, northwestern, southwestern, and northern China, including areas south of the Yellow River. The species no longer exists in majority of these locations. Argali inhabited in grasslands, foothills, and mountain ranges during the Pleistocene era. Based on the distribution of rock carvings and cliff paintings, argali lived in mountainous regions and plateaus during the Stone Age; however, the species disappeared from northern China. In this paper, we primarily used field observation to investigate the distribution of argali in China, excluding Xinjiang. In the Qilian Mountains, argali were concentrate in the Danghenan and Yema’nan Ranges of the western Qilian Mountains. No recent surveys have been conducted in the Tolainan and Shulenan Ranges, which until the 1980s still contained a few animals. The only recent reliable sighting of argali in this region was made in the hills near Dunhuang, between the Qilian Mountains and the Mazong Mountains. In the Altun Mountains, argali were observed in all the surrounding mountainous areas of in two major regions: from Sorkali to the southern Altun Mountains and from the northern Altun Mountains to the western Qilian Mountains. In Kunlun Mountains, scattered argali were found throughout most of the major plateau regions, except in the east. If any sheep survive in area along the northern slopes of the western Kunlun Mountains, they are probably on the verge of extirpation. Argali occurred as dispersed populations in the Kekexili, Qiangtang, and North Xizang Ranges. The highest densities of argali survived in the eastern Kunlun Mountains near Burhanbuda and Bayankala. The northern slope of Himalayas supported one of the largest populations of argali in Xizang. Recent surveys found argali populations in several areas along the southern part of the Yaluzangpo River, including Langkazi, Gangba, and Yadong. Reliable sightings suggest they also live in Cuona, further east along the border with Bhutan. In Inner Mongolia, argali previously occurred throughout the mountains and foothills of the Inner Mongolia Plateau that stretches from Daqingshan in the east to Alashan and Mazongshan to the extreme west. At the time of our surveys, the sheep still exists in some populations in Sunitezuoqi and Siwangziqi and further north toward the border with Mongolia. In Mazongshan, surveys confirmed small populations restricted to the mountain ranges on the border with South Gobi Province, Mongolia.

Key words: argali, fossil, rock carving and cliff painting, distribution