生物多样性 ›› 2024, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 23412.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2023412

• 生物多样性保护法规与政策专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

印度《生物多样性法》修订述要及对我国完善生物多样性保护法制的启示

马碧玉*   

  1. 云南大学法学院, 昆明 650500
  • 收稿日期:2023-10-31 修回日期:2023-12-15 出版日期:2024-05-20 发布日期:2024-01-16
  • 通讯作者: 马碧玉

Biyu Ma*   

  1. Law School, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500
  • Received:2023-10-31 Revised:2023-12-15 Online:2024-05-20 Published:2024-01-16
  • Contact: biyu Ma

摘要: 我国在完善生物多样性保护法治建设过程中应重视研究域外治理经验, 吸收适合国情的内容, 避免重复他国的弯路。本文采用历史分析和比较研究方法, 总结了印度立法、修法的经验教训, 为中国的生物多样性法律完善提出建议。印度2023年8月以促进生物资源商业利用为目的对其《生物多样性法》进行了第一次修订, 简化了传统医疗行业使用生物资源的申请程序, 优化了涉生物资源的专利申请程序, 并对违法行为做了“去罪化”处理。中国应从印度的立法、修订的经验中注意建立系统协同的生物多样性保护机制, 兼顾保护、可持续利用与惠益分享的关系, 同时对破坏生物多样性行为的刑事制裁规则予以优化。

关键词: 印度, 生物多样性, 法治, 修订

Abstract

Background & Aims: In the process of improving the legal framework for biodiversity conservation, China should emphasize the study of the governance experiences of other countries, absorb contents suitable to China’s conditions, and avoid repeating the mistakes of others.

Methods: This study utilized a historical and comparative analysis framework to extract insights and lessons from India’s legislative and legal amendment procedures. Furthermore, it provides recommendations for improving China’s biodiversity legislation.

Results: In August 2023, India introduced its first amendment to the Biological Diversity Act with the aim of promoting the commercial use of biological resources. This was achieved by streamlining the application procedures within the traditional medical industry, enhancing the patent application process related to biological resources, and decriminalizing infringements of this legal framework. These experiences would be applied in the development of legal system of biodiversity conservation in China.

Conclusion: Drawing on India’s legislative experience, China should implement systemic, coordinated mechanisms for biodiversity conservation that balance protection, sustainability, and benefit sharing.  Furthermore, China should endeavor to refine the regulatory framework pertaining to criminal sanctions associated with actions that lead to the destruction of biodiversity.

Key words: India, biodiversity, governance by law, amendments