生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (9): 1206-1214.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021104

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

库木塔格沙漠地区野骆驼活动节律与家域特征

吴运佳1,2, 程芸3, 袁磊3, 张诗4, 张烁1, 刘少创1,*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院空天信息创新研究院, 北京 100094
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3.罗布泊野骆驼国家级自然保护区管理局, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    4.中国地质大学(武汉)地理与信息工程学院, 武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-21 接受日期:2021-06-30 出版日期:2021-09-20 发布日期:2021-08-11
  • 通讯作者: 刘少创
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: liusc@radi.ac.cn

Quantitative study on the activity rhythm and home range of wild camels (Camelus ferus) in the Kumtag Desert

Yunjia Wu1,2, Yun Cheng3, Lei Yuan3, Shi Zhang4, Shuo Zhang1, Shaochuang Liu1,*()   

  1. 1 Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Xinjiang Lop Nor Wild Camel National Nature Reserve Administration, Urumqi 830011
    4 School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074
  • Received:2021-03-21 Accepted:2021-06-30 Online:2021-09-20 Published:2021-08-11
  • Contact: Shaochuang Liu

摘要:

野生双峰驼(Camelus ferus)生存于中亚沙漠腹地, 是国家I级重点保护野生动物。为探究野骆驼活动节律和家域状况, 了解其时间和空间尺度上的活动模式, 为其有效保护管理提供支持。本研究于2012年5月至2013年7月利用GPS跟踪项圈先后对库木塔格沙漠地区7峰野骆驼进行轨迹跟踪。利用跟踪数据对野骆驼活动节律进行分析, 并采用布朗桥模型对野骆驼家域进行分析。结果表明: (1)野骆驼日活动节律呈现明显双峰模式, 属晨昏活动类型, 活动高峰期主要出现于上午6:00-9:00及下午15:00-20:00。(2)野骆驼晨昏活动高峰存在明显的季节性变动, 双峰从暖季到冷季向中午移动, 按间隔时间长短排序为: 夏季 > 春季 > 秋季 > 冬季。(3)野骆驼日活动强度有明显的季节性差异, 大小关系为: 夏季 > 秋季 > 春季和冬季, 春季和冬季间差异不显著。(4)野骆驼为核心家域利用类型, 且存在多个核心家域, 一些野骆驼家域分布于沙漠南北两侧, 意味着其具有横跨沙漠的运动能力。(5)野骆驼个体间家域面积差异显著, 性别间家域面积差异不显著。季节间家域面积差异显著, 从大到小排序为: 夏季(1,256.27 ± 427.45 km2) > 春季(556.90 ± 259.35 km2) > 秋季(396.77 ± 82.31 km2) > 冬季(250.83 ± 99.64 km2)。

关键词: 偶蹄类, 野骆驼, 活动节律, 家域, 布朗桥运动模型, 保护

Abstract

Aim: The wild camel (Camelus ferus) is a native species to the deserts of Central Asia. Further, it is considered a first class protected animal in China. This study aims to explore the daily activity rhythm and native ranges of wild camels both spatially and temporally, so as to provide data support for effective protection and management of wild camels in this region.
Methods: GPS tracking collars were used to gather movement data for seven wild camels in the Kumtag Desert from May 2012 to July 2013. This tracking data was then used to infer the daily activity rhythm of the wild camels. A Brownian bridge model was also applied to further investigate the native range of wild camels.
Results: The results of this study suggest that: (1) Daily activity rhythm data for these wild camels indicate a clear bimodal pattern, with peak activity periods occurring in the morning from 6:00 to 9:00 and in the afternoon from 15:00 to 20:00. This finding is consistent with the wild camels being a crepuscular species. (2) The double peak time of the wild camel's crepuscular activity is close to noon, occurring during the transition between the warm season and the cold season. The order of interval times between peaks compared seasonally is: summer > spring > autumn > winter. (3) There are obvious seasonal differences in the daily activity intensity of wild camels. The relationships between daily activity intensity between seasons is: summer > autumn > spring and winter, where no clear difference was observed between spring and winter. (4) Wild camels belong to the core home range utilization type, often utilizing multiple core home ranges. The home ranges of the wild camels in this study exhibit a distribution between the north and south sides of the desert, suggesting that this species can move across the desert. (5) There are significant differences in home ranges among individuals, along with slight differences between sexes. Large variation in the home ranges of wild camels are observed seasonally, with the relative ordering from largest to smallest being: summer (1,256.27 ± 427.45 km2) > spring (556.90 ± 259.35 km2) > autumn (396.77 ± 82.31 km2) > winter (250.83 ± 99.64 km2).

Key words: artiodactyla, wild camel, activity rhythm, home range, Brownian bridge movement model, conservation