生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 81-97.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020359

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

陆生食肉动物竞争与共存研究概述

李治霖1,2, 多立安1,2, 李晟3,*(), 王天明4,5,6,*()   

  1. 1.天津师范大学生命科学学院天津市动植物抗性重点实验室, 天津 300387
    2.天津师范大学生命科学学院天津市动物多样性保护与利用重点实验室, 天津 300387
    3.北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    4.生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 北京 100875
    5.东北虎豹国家公园保护生态学国家林草局重点实验室, 北京 100875
    6.北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-09 接受日期:2020-12-29 出版日期:2021-01-20 发布日期:2021-01-11
  • 通讯作者: 李晟,王天明
  • 作者简介:wangtianming@bnu.edu.cn
    *E-mail: shengli@pku.edu.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31971539);科技部国家重点研发计划(2019FY101702);天津师范大学校级科研项目(52XB2010)

Competition and coexistence among terrestrial mammalian carnivores

Zhilin Li1,2, Li’an Duo1,2, Sheng Li3,*(), Tianming Wang4,5,6,*()   

  1. 1 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Animal and Plant Resistance, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387
    2 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Animal Diversity, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387
    3 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    4 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Engineering, Beijing 100875
    5 National Forestry and Grassland Administration Key Laboratory for Conservation Ecology in the Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park, Beijing 100875
    6 College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2020-09-09 Accepted:2020-12-29 Online:2021-01-20 Published:2021-01-11
  • Contact: Sheng Li,Tianming Wang

摘要:

陆生食肉动物(食肉目哺乳动物, 以下简称食肉动物)作为食物链与营养级的高位物种对维持生态系统结构与功能稳定性起到重要作用。过度人类干扰已在全球范围内造成食肉动物种群数量剧烈下降和栖息地质量显著退化, 探究食肉动物的区域共存机制对理解生物群落构建、濒危物种保护与管理具有重要意义。本文通过梳理100余篇有关食肉动物在空间、时间和营养3个生态位维度上相互作用的研究, 分析了体型大小、猎物组成、种群结构、环境差异、人类干扰和气候变化等因素对食肉动物种间关系和区域共存的影响, 并对今后食肉动物区域共存研究中亟需解决的问题进行了展望。食肉动物通过生态位分离达到共存并没有单一的理论解释, 猎物、栖息地和人类干扰等因素可以调节食肉动物相互作用关系并直接或间接地影响共存, 共同适应在食肉动物区域共存中具重要作用。食肉动物区域共存是经过长期演化形成的相对稳定状态, 需要以动态的眼光去审视。要明晰生态位重叠与区域共存机制的区别与联系, 在理解生态位分离的基础上, 结合生活史、家域和行为等对食肉动物共存进行综合分析。

关键词: 食肉动物, 生态位分离, 物种共存, 集团内捕食理论, 种间关系

Abstract:

Background & Aim: Carnivores play an important role in maintaining the structural and functional stability of ecosystems. Increasing anthropogenic pressure has resulted in dramatic population decline and habitat degradation of carnivores worldwide. Exploring regional coexistence mechanisms of carnivore populations is important to understand how mammal communities assemble, along with protecting and managing endangered species. This review summarizes the interactions of terrestrial carnivores along three dimensions (i.e., spatial, temporal and dietary), of their ecological niches, analyzing the influence of factors such as body size, prey composition, environmental difference, human disturbance and climate change on the coexistence of carnivores based on more than 100 related studies.
Review Results: We put forward the problems to be addressed for current study of carnivore coexistence. This study demonstrates that there is no single theoretical explanation for carnivore coexistence through niche separation. Prey, habitat and human disturbance may mediate the intensity of carnivore interactions and then influence their coexistence directly and indirectly. We also emphasize the critical role of co-adaptation for carnivore coexistence. Carnivore coexistence is a relatively stable state of long-term evolution, which needs to be examined dynamically.
Perspectives: We should correctly understand the differences and connections between niche overlap and coexistence. Besides niche separation, carnivores’ life history, movement and behavior should also be considered to interpret their coexistence.

Key words: carnivores, niche segregation, species coexistence, intraguild predation theory, interspecific relationship