生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1490-1504.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021165

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

大熊猫国家公园的地栖大中型鸟兽多样性现状: 基于红外相机数据的分析

田佳1, 朱淑怡1, 张晓峰3, 何礼文4, 古晓东5, 官天培6,*(), 李晟1,2,*()   

  1. 1.北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    2.北京大学生态研究中心, 北京 100871
    3.陕西省林业局, 西安 710082
    4.甘肃白水江国家级自然保护区, 甘肃陇南 746400
    5.四川省林业与草原局, 成都 610081
    6.西南民族大学青藏高原研究院, 成都 610225
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-28 接受日期:2021-07-29 出版日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2021-08-12
  • 通讯作者: 官天培,李晟
  • 作者简介:E-mail: shengli@pku.edu.cn
    E-mail: tp-guan@hotmail.com;
    第一联系人:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查、观测与评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);香港海洋公园保育基金(RB03_1617)

The diversity of large- and medium-sized terrestrial mammals and birds in the Giant Panda National Park: A meta-analysis based on camera-trapping data

Jia Tian1, Shuyi Zhu1, Xiaofeng Zhang3, Liwen He4, Xiaodong Gu5, Tianpei Guan6,*(), Sheng Li1,2,*()   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Institute of Ecology, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    3 Forestry Administration of Shaanxi Province, Xi’an 710082
    4 Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve, Longnan, Gansu 746400
    5 Forestry and Grassland Administration of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610081
    6 Institute of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu 610225
  • Received:2021-04-28 Accepted:2021-07-29 Online:2021-11-20 Published:2021-08-12
  • Contact: Tianpei Guan,Sheng Li

摘要:

生物多样性监测是国家公园保护的核心基础。大熊猫国家公园是我国首批5个国家公园之一, 系统的保护规划与有效的管理行动均有赖于对区内生物多样性本底、现状与动态的深入了解。为了解大熊猫国家公园范围内兽类与鸟类多样性本底与现状, 本研究系统检索了该区域内2005-2020年基于红外相机调查技术的野生动物研究论文、项目报告以及新闻报道, 并对区内原有保护地的红外相机监测历史与结果进行了问卷调查。结果表明, 2005-2020年期间, 在大熊猫国家公园范围内51个保护地的红外相机调查与监测中, 共记录到分属6目22科55属的71种野生兽类与分属13目45科132属的232种野生鸟类。在国家公园所覆盖的秦岭、岷山、邛崃山、相岭4大山系中, 邛崃和岷山记录到的大中型地栖鸟兽物种多样性最高(均为兽类40种, 鸟类12种), 相岭最低(兽类25种, 鸟类7种)。单个保护地中记录到的大中型地栖鸟兽物种数量与保护地面积、红外相机有效工作日及相机位点的海拔跨度均呈正相关, 国家级保护地中记录到的物种数(28 ± 8.3, mean ± SD)显著高于省级保护地(19 ± 8.9)。在大熊猫国家公园内共记录到猫科与犬科的4种大型食肉动物, 即豹(Panthera pardus)、雪豹(P. uncia)、狼(Canis lupus)和豺(Cuon alpinus), 主要来自于秦岭山系和邛崃山系, 而国家公园内的岷山山系则没有记录到大型食肉动物, 相岭山系中仅有1次狼的记录。本研究结果显示, 大熊猫国家公园内前期已经建立起的自然保护地网络与红外相机监测体系已积累大量区内野生兽类与鸟类的基础数据, 为国家公园的试点与建设提供了生物多样性编目与监测方面的可靠本底。在这些前期工作的基础上, 大熊猫国家公园应进一步规划、建设标准化的野生动物监测体系, 为今后国家公园的管理决策、成效评估提供坚实的科学支撑。

关键词: 自然保护地体系, 生物多样性编目, 野生动物监测, 红外相机网络, 大型食肉动物, 保护地管理

Abstract

Aims Biodiversity monitoring is the foundation of conservation work in national parks. Systematic conservation planning and effective management actions within these parks highly rely on an in-depth evaluation of biodiversity metrics. In China, the Giant Panda National Park (GPNP) is one of the first five national parks. To establish baseline metrics of mammal and bird diversity in GPNP, we conducted a meta-analysis based on published camera-trapping data.
Methods We systematically searched academic publications, project reports, and news articles that reported on wildlife camera-trapping studies between 2005 and 2020 in GPNP. We also conducted a questionnaire survey on the history and results of camera-trap monitoring projects within the protected areas of the region. These data were compiled for statistical analysis.
Result Between 2005 and 2020, 71 wild mammal species belonging to 6 orders, 22 families and 55 genera, and 232 wild bird species belonging to 13 orders, 45 families and 132 genera were recorded via camera-trap monitoring in 51 protected areas within GPNP. Among the four mountain ranges within GPNP (i.e., Mts. Qinling, Mts. Minshan, Mts. Qionglai and Mts. Xiangling), the species richness of large- and medium-sized terrestrial mammals and birds was the highest in Mts. Qionglai and Mts. Minshan (40 mammal and 12 pheasant species for each) and the lowest in Mts. Xiangling (25 mammal and 7 pheasant species). The recorded number of target species in individual protected areas was positively correlated with the area of protected area, sampling effort (measured as number of camera-days), and the camera station elevation range. The numbers of species recorded in national protected areas (28 ± 8.3, mean ± SD) were significantly higher than those in provincial protected areas (19 ± 8.9). Four large carnivores of Felidae and Canidae (leopard Panthera pardus, snow leopard P. uncia, wolf Canis lupus and dhole Cuon alpinus) were recorded in GPNP, primarily from Mts. Qinling and Mts. Qionglai, while no large carnivores were recorded within the park in Mts. Minshan and only one wolf was recorded in Mts. Xiangling.
Conclusion The previous protected area network and camera-trapping monitoring network prior to the establishment of GPNP have already accumulated a high quantity of data on wild mammals and birds in this region. These data provide a reliable baseline biodiversity inventory for the pilot and construction phases of GPNP. In light of these results, GPNP should design and implement a standardized wildlife monitoring system to further provide additional data for future evaluations of park management, decision-making, and conservation effectiveness.

Key words: protected area system, biodiversity inventory, wildlife monitoring, camera-trapping network, large carnivores, protected area management