生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 212-219.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020128

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UNDP与中国合作实施GEF生物多样性项目的成就与经验

马超德*(), 赵新华, 郑程, 冷斐   

  1. 联合国开发计划署驻华代表处, 北京 100600
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-31 接受日期:2020-06-19 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2020-07-30
  • 通讯作者: 马超德
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: chaode.ma@undp.org
  • 基金资助:
    全球环境基金项目

The achievements and experiences of UNDP-GEF biodiversity projects in China

Chaode Ma*(), Xinhua Zhao, Cheng Zheng, Fei Leng   

  1. United Nations Development Programme China Office, Beijing 100600
  • Received:2020-03-31 Accepted:2020-06-19 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2020-07-30
  • Contact: Chaode Ma

摘要:

全球环境基金(GEF)作为《生物多样性公约》财务机制的运行主体, 已在全球范围内实施了7个周期, 各国在执行GEF项目期间, 遇到了可持续性不强、项目设计方案复杂、期望过高等挑战。作为GEF的国际实施机构, 联合国开发计划署(UNDP)与中国政府合作, 针对各项挑战, 采取综合应对措施, 优化设计与实施的生物多样性项目取得了系列成就, 这些项目的实施是落实爱知生物多样性目标和《2011-2020年生物多样性战略计划》的有效实践并提供了成功范例。这些应对策略与成就包括: (1)撬动了中国政府5-10倍的配套资金用于生物多样性相关工作, 推动生物多样性在中国各级政府的主流化, 使得财务、制度和环境的可持续得以实现。项目贡献于国家宏观战略规划和五年计划的制订、完善法律法规、探索融资机制、推进政策导向等方面, 并将生物多样性纳入国家重要议程, 使生态文明的理念发挥政策引领作用。(2)项目从设计到执行, 充分征询利益相关者的意见, 目标的设定明智, 确保了项目的实施成效。(3)借鉴相关国家成功经验, 结合中国实际开展了诸多创新和示范。(4)提供培训、教育和广泛交流, 综合提升了生物多样性领域相关机构和人员的能力, 对于增强技术、管理、协调、协作等领域的软实力和巧实力发挥了桥梁和纽带作用。(5)利用各种窗口和平台, 广泛开展宣传推广、研讨交流等, 提高了公众对生物多样性的认知, 为长期践行可持续发展战略奠定群众基础。本文结合UNDP作为国际实施机构与相关部委和省级及地方政府共同实施的GEF生物多样性项目实践, 总结了项目的成就与经验, 期望为全球相关项目设计和实施以及2020年后全球生物多样性框架的制定提供借鉴, 以共同实现“到2050年与自然和谐相处”的愿景。

关键词: 全球环境基金, 联合国开发计划署, 生物多样性, 成就, 项目管理

Abstract:

Background: The Global Environment Facility (GEF), an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), has experienced seven replenishment phases globally. Some common challenges encountered during the implementation include: sustainability of outcomes, complex programme design and management, and limited engagement with the private sector. In China, stability of project staff is, among all, the largest obstacle.
Actions: As a GEF International Implementing Agency (IA), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) collaborated with the Chinese government at various levels in optimizing the project design and implementation. Comprehensive actions have been taken against challenges and several goals have been obtained in biodiversity conservation. UNDP-GEF projects undertook several adaptive methods and risk management actions to meet those challenges and overcome obstacles. The highlights in the project implementation include: (1) Biodiversity mainstreaming. During the design and implementation of GEF biodiversity projects, great attention has been paid to mainstream biodiversity into all levels of the Chinese governments. (2) Successful cases of market transformation. The project played a bridging role, as enterprises agreed to pay attention to the changes of land use in the upstream, realizing a win-win situation of basin protection, economic and social development. (3) Optimization of the project design. Under China context, several umbrella programmes with their child projects in parallel under a national framework have been designed through programmatic approaches. Meanwhile, setting SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound) objectives shaped up project effectiveness for individual projects. (4) Comprehensive stakeholder consultation. Consultation with stakeholders during full project cycles from designing to implementation is also a necessity. Stakeholders actively participated in projects implementation and the income of local residents increased thanks to projects. Projects proactively coordinated multiple stakeholders including enterprises and non-profit organizations, and adopted participatory management or community co-management to benefit local people and ultimately reduced the threats to biodiversity. Other actions include: (5) enabling financial sustainability; (6) enhancement of capacity and management effectiveness; (7) gender mainstreaming.
Achievements: With jointly efforts by Chinese governments, UNDP and multi-stakeholders, the following achievements have been made: (1) 5-10 times of co-financing from the Chinese government for biodiversity-related work has been leveraged; (2) biodiversity mainstreamed into governments agenda; (3) the newly protected areas increased; (4) management effectiveness of most nature reserves and protected areas enhanced; and (5) the local residents of the project sites benefitted from the projects.
Conclusion: This paper combines the practices of the GEF biodiversity projects jointly implemented by UNDP, along with relevant ministries, provinces and other governmental institutes in China, and narrates the strategies and achievements serving as successful examples and best practices contributing to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. Hence, this paper provides references for designs and implementations of relevant international projects. These references can be used for the formulation and implementation of related projects globally in the future and contribute to the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, to achieve the vision of “living in harmony with nature by 2050”.

Key words: Global Environment Facility, United Nations Development Programme, biodiversity, achievements, project management