生物多样性

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UNDP与中国合作实施GEF生物多样性项目的成就与经验

马超德,赵新华,郑程,冷斐   

  1. 联合国开发计划署驻华代表处
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-31 修回日期:2020-06-16 发布日期:2020-07-30
  • 通讯作者: 马超德

The achievements and experiences of UNDP-GEF biodiversity projects in China

Chaode Ma1,Xinhua Zhao1,Cheng Zheng2,Fei Leng1   

  1. 1. United Nations Development Programme China Office
    2. UNDP China Office
  • Received:2020-03-31 Revised:2020-06-16 Published:2020-07-30
  • Contact: Chaode Ma

摘要: 全球环境基金(GEF)作为《生物多样性公约》财务机制的运行主体,已在全球范围内实施了七个周期,各国在执行GEF项目期间,遇到了可持续性不高、项目设计方案复杂、期望过高等挑战。作为GEF的国际实施机构,联合国开发计划署(UNDP)与中国政府合作,针对各项挑战,采取综合应对措施,优化设计与实施的生物多样性项目取得了系列成就,是爱知生物多样性目标和《2011-2020年生物多样性战略计划》的有效实践并提供了成功范例。这些应对策略与成就包括:(1)撬动了中国政府5-10倍的配套资金用于生物多样性相关工作,推动生物多样性在中国各级政府的主流化,使得财务、制度和环境的可持续得以实现。项目贡献于国家宏观战略规划和五年计划、完善法律法规、探索融资机制、推进政策导向等,将生物多样性纳入国家重要议程,使生态文明的理念发挥政策引领作用。(2)项目从设计到执行,充分征询利益相关者的意见,目标的设定明智(SMART),确保了项目的实施成效。(3)借鉴相关国家成功经验,结合中国实际开展了诸多创新和示范。(4)提供培训、教育和广泛交流,综合提升了生物多样性领域相关机构和人员的能力,对于增强技术、管理、协调、协作等领域的软实力和巧实力发挥了桥梁和纽带作用。(5)利用各种窗口和平台,广泛开展宣传推广、研讨交流等,提高了公众对生物多样性的认知,为长期践行可持续发展战略奠定群众基础。本文结合UNDP作为国际实施机构与相关部委和省级及地方政府共同实施的GEF生物多样性项目实践,总结了项目的成就与经验,期望为全球相关项目设计和实施以及2020年后全球生物多样性框架的制定提供借鉴,以共同实现“到 2050 年与自然和谐相处”的愿景。

关键词: 全球环境基金, 联合国开发计划署, 生物多样性, 成就, 项目管理

Abstract: The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the financial mechanism to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), has had seven global replenishment periods. When implementing GEF projects, some common challenges usually encountered include: projects not being sustainable, excessively high expectations on project design, and a requirement for complex implementations. As a GEF international implementing agency, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) collaborated with the Chinese government to optimize the project design. They were able to take comprehensive actions against challenges usually faced and were able to accomplish several goals in conserving biodiversity. The following strategies and achievements serve as successful examples and best practices contributing to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the Strategic Action Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020: (1) By leveraging the 5-10 times of matching fund from the Chinese government for biodiversity-related work and emphasizing the importance of conserving biodiversity at all levels of governments, they were able to enable financial, institutional and environmental sustainability. These projects supported the national strategic planning and five-year plan, facilitated the incorporation of laws and regulations focused on biodiversity, explored mechanisms for financing projects, optimized policies, and enabled the importance of biodiversity to be a key focus for the country. Consequently, the concept of “Ecological Civilization” is now playing leading role in policy making. (2) Consulting with stakeholders during full project cycles from designing to implementation and setting objectives in a SMART way to increase project effectiveness. (3) Using successful practices from other counties and exploring innovations and demonstrations in ways suitable for China. (4) Providing enough trainings and resources to comprehensively build capabilities of institutions and personnel focused on conservingbiodiversity. Additionally, provide trainings and resources to help develop China’s ‘soft’ and ‘smart’ skills in technology, management, coordination, and collaboration. (5) Using various technological platforms to communicate, promote, and raise public awareness of the importance of maintaining biodiversity and to lay the foundation for long-term sustainability. This paper combines the practices of the GEF biodiversity projects jointly implemented by UNDP as an international implementing agency, along with relevant ministries and governmental institutes in China, and summarizes their achievements and experiences. Here, we aim to provide references for designs and implementations of relevant global projects. These references can be used for the formulation and implementation of related projects globally in the future and contribute to the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, to achieve the vision of “living in harmony with nature by 2050”.

Key words: Global Environment Facility, United Nations Development Programme, biodiversity, achievements, project management