生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 1021-1031.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019166

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

激光雷达技术在动物生态学领域的研究进展

李顺,邹亮,宫一男,杨海涛,王天明,冯利民,葛剑平()   

  1. 东北虎豹生物多样性国家野外科学观测研究站, 教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室, 东北虎豹国家公园保护生态学国家林草局重点实验室, 国家林草局东北虎豹监测与研究中心, 北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-16 接受日期:2019-08-10 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 葛剑平
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31842007);科技部基础性工作专项基金(2016YF0500106)

Advances in LiDAR technology in the field of animal ecology

Shun Li,Liang Zou,Yinan Gong,Haitao Yang,Tianming Wang,Limin Feng,Jianping Ge()   

  1. Aumer Tiger and Leopard Biodiversity National Observation and Research Station, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, National Forestry and Grassland Administration Key Laboratory for Conservation Ecology of Amur Tiger and Amur Leopard National Park, National Forestry and Grassland Administration Amur Tiger and Amur Leopard Monitoring and Research Center, College of Life Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2019-05-16 Accepted:2019-08-10 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-25
  • Contact: Jianping Ge

摘要:

激光雷达(light detection and ranging, LiDAR)作为一门新兴的主动遥感技术, 近年来由于在提取和反演森林参数水平上不断提高, 被越来越多地应用于动物生态学研究中。本文通过整理和搜集国内外文献, 对激光雷达的技术特点及其在森林参数提取和动物生境上的研究进展进行综述, 指出当前基于LiDAR的森林参数反演算法主要服务于森林资源调查或林学研究, 缺少对动物生态或生理意义相关的参数量化信息。目前该技术在国内的动物生态学方面的应用较少, 尚未见文章发表。通过总结国外学者的研究, 分别从动物生境选择与三维森林结构的关系、栖息地立体生境制图、生物多样性评估和物种分布模型预测三个方面综述了LiDAR在动物生态学研究中的应用现状。相比传统方法, LiDAR技术提供的高精度三维结构信息, 能够显著提高动物生境质量的评估、生物多样性的监测水平和物种分布模型的评价精度, 有利于从机理上加深对物种生境选择和集群过程的理解。但目前LiDAR技术的应用主要集中在对已知的生态关系研究, 尤其是冠层结构与动物分布的关系, 缺少对林下层生活的动物生境质量和生物多样性的监测和评估, 同时很多有关动物生存和繁衍与立体生境的关系研究有待从LiDAR数据中进一步挖掘分析。未来应加强对森林林下层三维信息的提取, 提高林下层动物生境质量和生物多样性的监测水平, 同时建立适用于动物生态和生理意义相关的参数, 为动物生境质量和生物多样性的评估提供标准的量化指标。

关键词: 遥感, 动物生境监测, 物种分布, 生物多样性

Abstract

LiDAR (light detection and ranging), a fairly new active remote sensing technology, is being widely used in the field of animal ecology by more and more scholars due to the recent development where forest parameters can be extracted and inverted from LiDAR. In this paper, we review the advances in forest parameter extraction from LiDAR and its many applications in studying wildlife habitat. We also analyze current research on forest parameter inversion algorithms based on LiDAR, mainly in forestry research, though we lack quantitative parameters related to the ecological significance of animals. Because few studies have applied LiDAR technology to animal ecology research in China, we consider foreign research in this field in three categories: (1) The relationship between species habitat selection and three-dimensional forest structure; (2) Three-dimensional habitat mapping; (3) Biodiversity assessment and species distribution model prediction. Compared with traditional methods, the high-precision three-dimensional structure information provided by LiDAR can significantly improve the efficacy of monitoring animal habitat quality and biodiversity and the modelling accuracy of species distribution models. These advancements contribute to deeper understanding of species habitat selection and the clustering process mechanism. However, the studies that utilize LiDAR to date have mainly focused on previously known ecological relationships, especially the relationship between canopy structure and species diversity. These studies fail to account for either forest understory habitat quality or biodiversity monitoring and evaluation. In short, the relationship between wildlife and its three-dimensional habitat needs to be further explored through analysis of LiDAR data. Future studies should focus on extracting three-dimensional structures of forest understories to improve the efficacy of monitoring habitat quality and biodiversity in the understory, and to provide standard quantitative indicators for the evaluation of animal ecology.

Key words: remote sensing, animal habitat monitoring, species distribution, biodiversity