生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 453-463.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016134

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

IUCN生态系统红色名录研究进展

谭剑波1,2, 李爱农1,*(), 雷光斌1, 陈国科3, 马克平3   

  1. 1 中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所数字山地与遥感应用研究中心, 成都 610041
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-15 接受日期:2017-02-27 出版日期:2017-05-20 发布日期:2017-06-06
  • 通讯作者: 李爱农
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 中国科学院委托研究与专项咨询服务课题(KFJ-EW-STS-020-02)、国家自然科学基金(41571373 41631180)、中国科学院战略先导性科技专项-碳专项(XDA05050105)和环保部“生态十年”专项(STSN-01-04)

Research advances and challenges in the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

Jianbo Tan1,2, Ainong Li1,*(), Guangbin Lei1, Guoke Chen3, Keping Ma3   

  1. 1 Research Center for Digital Mountain and Remote Sensing Application, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2016-05-15 Accepted:2017-02-27 Online:2017-05-20 Published:2017-06-06
  • Contact: Li Ainong

摘要:

生态系统红色名录作为物种红色名录的重要补充, 是基于生态系统水平上的生物多样性评估, 对于重要生物的生境保护至关重要。当前, 世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)将IUCN生态系统红色名录评估方法作为生态系统受威胁状况评估的正式标准, 广泛应用于全球生态系统的评估, 在生物多样性保护和生态系统管理中发挥着重要作用。随着IUCN生态系统红色名录评估体系的修订和推广, 其评估标准日趋完善, 但生态系统制图、生态系统崩溃的概念以及实际操作层面仍面临挑战。本文回顾了生态系统红色名录的发展过程, 归纳了IUCN生态系统红色名录评估方案中生境范围退化(标准A)、生境限制分布(标准B)、非生物环境退化(标准C)、生物过程退化(标准D)以及威胁定量分析(标准E)这5个指标的含义和评估过程, 并围绕IUCN生态系统红色名录实际评估中面临的挑战, 论述了利用遥感和生态模型可能提供的解决方案。文中指出, 明确生态系统分类体系以及生态系统崩溃等基本概念对生态系统红色名录评估至关重要; 尺度效应是评估过程的重要影响因素; 多尺度评估是丰富生态系统红色名录空间信息的潜在方法; 耦合遥感和生态模型等手段共同参与评估, 是未来研究IUCN生态系统红色名录的重要方法。

关键词: IUCN生态系统红色名录, 生态系统受威胁状况, 尺度效应, 生物多样性

Abstract:

The Red List of Ecosystems is a growing toolbox for assessing risks to biodiversity at the ecosystem level, which is complementary to the Red List of Threatened Species and important for the protection of key species’ habitats. The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria was adopted as an official global standard for assessing the risks to ecosystems by the IUCN Council. With the revision and extension of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria, this framework is gradually improved, which plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. However, it faces challenges in ecosystem mapping, the concepts of ecosystem collapse and practical application. This paper reviews the development of the Red List of Ecosystems and introduces the five criterions in the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems protocol (declining in distribution, restricted distribution, abiotic degradation, biotic degradation and quantitative estimates of risk of ecosystem collapse) and how it is used. While focusing on the challenges in the assessment with the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria, we also discuss the potential solutions to these problems based on remote sensing and ecological models. We points out that the explicit definition of ecosystem collapse and the classification system of ecosystems is essential for applying the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria; the scale effects have great impacts on the results of assessment; assessment at hierarchical scales may be a potential method to provide spatial information for the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems; incorporating remote sensing and ecological models into this framework is an important way to study the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria in the near future.

Key words: IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, threatened status of ecosystem, scale effects, biodiversity