生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 123-135.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016120

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若干重要地质事件对中国植物区系 形成演变的影响

周浙昆1,2,*(), 黄健1,3, 丁文娜1,3   

  1. 1 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带森林生态学重点实验室, 云南勐腊 666303
    2 中国科学院昆明植物研究所东亚植物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-04 接受日期:2016-10-19 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-03-06
  • 通讯作者: 周浙昆
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金-云南联合基金(U1502231)

The impact of major geological events on Chinese flora

Zhekun Zhou1,2,*(), Jian Huang1,3, Wenna Ding1,3   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    2 Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2016-05-04 Accepted:2016-10-19 Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-03-06
  • Contact: Zhou Zhekun

摘要:

地球环境是植物区系形成的重要基础。本文总结了新生代以来中国境内的主要地质事件, 并通过亚热带常绿阔叶林主要组成成分和孑遗特有成分地质历史的变迁, 讨论了若干重要地质事件对生物多样性的影响。新生代以来, 中国经历了古新世-始新世极热事件、青藏高原隆升、季风气候形成、干旱带演变和第四纪冰期等一系列地质事件, 这些事件使中国形成了复杂多样的地球环境, 为植物区系形成与演变提供了重要的地质背景。青藏高原的隆升改变了中国的地形地貌, 也使得古近纪以来横贯东西的干旱带在中新世以后变成了总体上东部湿润、西部干旱的格局, 这种格局的改变对中国植物区系成分的南北交流起到了重要的作用。壳斗科、樟科、木兰科、豆科、金缕梅科等亚热带常绿阔叶林的主要成分在始新世均已出现, 南方亚热带的常绿阔叶林在科、属组成上已经和现在非常接近。季风气候的形成与青藏高原的隆起关系密切并随之而演化发展。季风气候以冬春季干旱为特征, 深刻地影响着中国的植物区系空间分化格局。华中等季风气候变化率较小的地区, 冬春季相对湿润, 因此中国第三纪孑遗成分集中分布于这一区域。

关键词: 地球环境多样性, 生物多样性, 特有种, 新生代, 青藏高原, 常绿阔叶林

Abstract:

Geological events are one of the critical factors that are responsible for the formation and development of regional flora. Major geological events are discussed in this article with an emphasis on their impacts on dominant elements of evergreen broad-leaved forests, as well as on relict and endemic elements of Chinese flora. Geological events contributing to the complex geological history of China include the Paloecene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the formation and development of the monsoon climate, and the shifting of dry areas in China during the Cenozoic Era. As rich geological environments are the basis for forming and developing biodiversity, such biodiversity can be seen in the main elements of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, which have been presented in China since the Neogene, and include Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Fabaceae and Hamamelidaceae. The morphological characteristics of these elements are comparable with modern taxa at the genus level. The monsoon climate in China, especially dry winters and springs, strongly impacts floristic patterns. Relict and endemic plants are concentrated in Central China where winter and spring are comparatively humid. Monsoon intensity and development are correlated with the height of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Key words: geodiversity, biodiversity, endemic, Cenozoic, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, evergreen board-leaved forest