生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 681-688.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015158

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生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学-政策平台的概念框架和运作模式

兰存子, 田瑜*(), 徐靖, 李俊生   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院生物多样性研究中心, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-09 接受日期:2015-07-16 出版日期:2015-09-20 发布日期:2015-10-12
  • 通讯作者: 田瑜
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31300458)和环境保护部生物多样性保护专项

Conceptual framework and operational model of Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Cunzi Lan, Yu Tian*(), Jing Xu, Junsheng Li   

  1. Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2015-06-09 Accepted:2015-07-16 Online:2015-09-20 Published:2015-10-12
  • Contact: Tian Yu

摘要:

生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学-政策平台(Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES)于2012年4月正式成立, 其目标是建立科学与政策之间的联系, 加强生物多样性保护与可持续利用, 确保长期人类福祉和社会可持续发展。为了促进不同学科、知识体系和利益相关方之间的协作, 多学科专家小组组织制定了IPBES概念框架, 并在2013年第二届全体会议上正式通过。本文介绍了IPBES概念框架的基本要素及其相互关系以及IPBES科学和政策互动的运作模式, 讨论了IPBES对政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)、生物多样性科学知识国际机制(International Mechanism of Scientific Expertise on Biodiversity, IMoSEB)和千年生态系统评估(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, MA)的借鉴和发展。概念框架识别了自然与人类复杂关系中的6个基本要素: (1)自然; (2)自然对人类的福祉; (3)好的生活质量; (4)人类财产; (5)直接驱动力; (6)制度、治理和其他间接驱动力, 并说明了各要素间的相互作用及其在时间和空间尺度上的对应关系。IPBES运作的概念模型展示了科学和政策通过IPBES实现互动的过程: 科学和其他知识体系经过概念框架的过滤持续向平台流动, 并通过IPBES职能和工作方案的实现来影响政策。IPBES将成为今后各国在生物多样性领域对话、博弈、争取利益最大化的舞台, 其多学科、多尺度评估结果将在政策的支持和导向方面对国际社会产生重大影响。我国应积极主动参与IPBES的工作并发挥建设性作用, 确保我国相关科研成果的应用, 同时借鉴IPBES的思路, 改进我国生物多样性保护。

关键词: 生物多样性, 生态系统服务, 人类福祉, 科学, 政策, 评估

Abstract:

The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was officially established in April 2012 as an independent intergovernmental body, with the goal of strengthening the science-policy interface for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, long-term human well-being and social sustainable development. A conceptual framework for the IPBES, recommended by the Multidisciplinary Expert Panel, was accepted during the 2nd Session of platform’s Plenary, in order to promote cooperation across different disciplines, knowledge systems, and stakeholders. In this paper, IPBES conceptual framework is introduced, including the main elements and their linkages, and the operational conceptual model between science and policy of IPBES, as well as the linkages between IPBES, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), International Mechanism of Scientific Expertise on Biodiversity (IMoSEB) and Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), and the experiences learned from these previous actions. The conceptual framework captures six elements of the relationships between the natural world and humankind: nature; nature’s benefits to people; good quality of life; anthropogenic assets; direct drivers of change; institutions and governance systems and other indirect drivers of change. This framework indicates the interactions of 6 elements at different spatial and temporal scales and the focus for assessment and knowledge generation. The operational model of IPBES demonstrates the dynamics between science and policy through IPBES. A continuous flow of knowledge from science and other knowledge systems filters to the interface after screening the analytical conceptual framework, and decision-making is then impacted through the realization of the functions and the work program of IPBES. The prospects and potential impacts of the conceptual framework and operational model, as well as a proposed corresponding strategy for China are discussed. We argue that IPBES is going to become a platform for nations to communicate, play political game and maximize the benefits, the embracement of different disciplines and knowledge systems in the multi-scaled assessments of the IPBES will have significant impacts on policy guiding and supporting in international community. China should become more proactive in participating and play a constructive role in the IPBES process, in order to ensure the application of the scientific research from China in the assessment, as well as improve the biodiversity conservation in China by incorporating international experience.

Key words: biodiversity, ecosystem services, human wellbeing, science, policy, assessment