生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 351-364.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014202

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中国哺乳动物多样性

蒋志刚1,*(), 马勇1, 吴毅2, 王应祥3, 冯祚建1, 周开亚4, 刘少英5, 罗振华6, 李春旺1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室, 北京 100101)
    2 (广州大学生命科学学院, 广州 510006)
    3 (中国科学院昆明动物研究所, 昆明 650223)
    4 (南京师范大学生命科学学院, 南京 210046)
    5 (四川林业科学研究院, 成都 610081)
    6 (华中师范大学生命科学学院, 武汉 430079);
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-24 接受日期:2015-03-16 出版日期:2015-06-09 发布日期:2015-06-12
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性专项、科技基础性专项(2013FY110300)

China’s mammalian diversity

Zhigang Jiang1,*, Yong Ma1, Yi Wu2, Yingxiang Wang3, Zuojian Feng1, Kaiya Zhou4, Shaoying Liu5, Zhenhua Luo6, Chunwang Li1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006
    3 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    4 School of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046
    5 Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081
    6 School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079
  • Received:2014-09-24 Accepted:2015-03-16 Online:2015-06-09 Published:2015-06-12
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang

摘要:

中国哺乳动物区系有鲜明的特色: 有青藏高原分布的特有种属, 有第三纪孑遗动物——大熊猫科和白鱀豚科, 世界一半以上的鼠兔科动物为中国特有种, 中国还是世界有蹄类最丰富的国家。新世纪以来, 世界哺乳动物分类体系发生了变化, 中国也发现一批哺乳动物新种和新记录种。因此, 有必要对中国哺乳动物多样性名录进行及时更新和完善。我们在《中国生物多样性红色名录·哺乳动物卷》的编研中, 对中国哺乳动物的目级阶元采用在系统发育基因组学已经取得一致意见的方案; 在科及以下阶元以《中国哺乳动物种与亚种分类名录与分布大全》和Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (第3版)的分类系统为基础, 有蹄类的分类采用Ungulate Taxonomy分类系统; 收集整理了中国(包括台湾地区)所有哺乳动物资料, 增加了截至2015年3月31日学术期刊发表的中国哺乳动物新种和新记录种, 通过会议评审和通讯评审, 调整了一些物种的名称和分类地位, 确定了《中国哺乳动物名录(2015)》。该名录收录了中国现有哺乳动物12目55科245属673种, 其中, 新种18种(包括11种最近发现的或利用分子生物学方法确定的、尚有争议的新种)、新记录种18种、60个亚种提升为种。根据研究结果和专家意见, 剔除了52种哺乳动物。此外, 中国分类学家对新版名录中的20种啮类(Glires)的分类地位持不同意见, 这些种类需要进一步研究。以《中国哺乳动物名录(2015)》收录的中国哺乳动物种数与其他国家比较, 中国哺乳动物种数超过IUCN报道的世界哺乳动物排序第一的印度尼西亚(670种)。中国有150种特有哺乳动物, 特有种比例为22.3%。兔形目特有种比例达43%, 鼠兔科特有种比例更高达52%。劳亚食虫目的特有种比例为35%。中国灵长目、啮齿目和翼手目特有种比例约占各目总种数的1/5, 翼手目特有种包括近十年发表、模式产地为中国的12个蝙蝠新种。《中国哺乳动物名录(2015)》为生物多样性研究与保护提供了最新的本底资料。

关键词: 哺乳动物, 编目, 生物多样性, 特有种

Abstract

China’s mammalian fauna is unique: it possesses the endemic species and genera of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; it has the relic families, Ailuropodidae and Lipotidae, of the Tertiary Period; more than half of the species of the Ochotonidae in the country are endemic; furthermore China is also the country with world most abundant ungulate diversity. In the new millennia, changes to the taxonomy of mammals of world were proposed. New mammalian species and new mammals were reported in China. Thus it is necessary to renew the inventory of China’s mammal diversity. During the compiling of The Red List of Endangered Species in China: Mammals, we collected the available data on China’s mammals (including those of Taiwan) and formed The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015. For taxonomy of orders, we followed the existing theory using molecular phylogeny whereas for the classification of families and the taxa below family level, we followed the A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wang (2003) and Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wilson & Reeder (2005). We also adopted Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves & Grubb (2011) to classify the ungulates in China. The initial list included species recorded in taxonomic books and field guides, new species and new records in literature before March 31, 2015. After five evaluation meetings and two rounds of evaluation by correspondence, we finalized The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015, which includes 12 orders, 55 families, 245 genera and 673 species. Among those species, 18 new species (including 11 discovered with molecular biology methods, the validity of the species are still in dispute among zoologists), 18 new species records in country, and 60 subspecies were elevated to the status of species were added to the checklist. According to literature and expertise, we deleted 52 species which are not found in China. Of them, specimens of some species were collected only once, and then never been found again during following surveys. Taxonomists hold different opinions on 20 Glires, and those species need further investigation. Compared with the data of IUCN Red List (2014), the number of mammal species in China recorded in the study is surpassed that of Indonisia (670), China became the country with the most abundant mammal species in the world. The mammals in China accounted for 12.3% of the world total numbers of mammalian species. There are 150 endemic mammals in China, which accounted for 22.3% of the national total. 43% of the species in Lagomorpha are endemics to the country. The endemic ratio of Ochotonidae is even higher, 52% of the total. Endemic ratio of Eulipotyphla is 35%. About one fifth of Primates, Chiroptera and Rodentia in China are also endemics, including 12 new bat species discovered in the country during recent decade. The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015 provides the most updated baseline information for biodiversity research and conservation.

Key words: mammals, inventory, biodiversity, endemic species