生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (3): 326-331.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002045

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青海湖草原围栏对植物群落的影响兼论濒危动物普氏原羚的保护

刘丙万,蒋志刚   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2001-12-03 修回日期:2002-04-12 出版日期:2002-08-20 发布日期:2002-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚

Impacts of grassland fencing on plant communities and conservation of a rare gazelle, the Przewalski's gazelle

LIU Bing-Wa,JIANG Zhi-Gang   

  1. Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Science , Beijing 100080
  • Received:2001-12-03 Revised:2002-04-12 Online:2002-08-20 Published:2002-08-20
  • Contact: JIANG ZhiGang

摘要: 青海省海晏县克图地区是我国特有动物普氏原羚(Procapra przewalskii)的主要分布地之一。我们于2001年6月、7月和8月在该地区开展了围栏内外植物群落的比较研究。围栏内无家畜放牧,主要草食野生动物为普氏原羚;围栏外为草食家畜放牧区。我们发现,自从1999年建立草原围栏以后,围栏内外植物群落产生了明显差异:(1)地上生物量。6月份围栏外植物地上生物量显著低于围栏内(df=39,p<0.05);7、8月份围栏外植物地上生物量显著高于围栏内 (df=39,p<0.05)。(2)植物高度。6月份围栏外的植物高度显著低于围栏内 (df=39,p<0.05);7、8月份围栏外的植物高度与围栏内植物高度差异不显著 (df=39, p>0.05)。(3)植物盖度。6、7月份围栏外植物盖度显著低于围栏内 (df=19,p<0.05);8月份围栏内外的植物盖度差异不显著(df=19,p>0.05)。(4)牧草的比例。围栏外明显低于围栏内 (df=6, p<0.05);围栏外非牧草的比例明显高于围栏内(df=6,p<0.05)。(5)生物多样性。植物生长季节围栏外植物群落的生物多样性显著高于围栏内 (df=6, p<0.05)。在草原生态系统围栏内外植物群落研究结果比较的基础上,讨论了草食动物采食强度对草原生态系统植物群落影响和围栏与野生动物保护的关系,提出了普氏原羚的保护对策。

关键词: 西北地区, 生物多样性保护, 生态危机, 研究思路

AbstractThe impacts of grassland fencing on rangeland plant communities during the plant-growing season were studied in the Ketu area, Haiyan County, Qinghai Province, China in 2001. The Ketu area is one of the main distribution ranges of a rare and critically endangered gazelle, the Przewalski gazelle ( Procapra przewalskii ). Grassland fences were built for the purpose of vegetation restoration in the desert in 1999. Domestic animals at high density grazed outside the fenced range, while the Przewalski's gazelle at low density grazed inside the fenced ranges. Above ground biomass, plant height, plant cover, and plant species diversity of the plant communities outside and inside the fenced ranges were randomly sampled and analyzed in the laboratory to determine the impact of different grazing rates outside and inside fenced ranges. (1) The above-ground biomass outside the fences in June was significantly lower than that inside the fences (p <0.05), however, the above ground biomass outside the fences in both July and August were significantly higher than those inside the fences ( p <0.05). (2) The range of plant heights outside the fences (mean: 11.2~37.0 cm) was broader than that inside the fences (mean: 20.6 ~28.0 cm). Plant height outside the fences in June was significantly lower than that inside the fences ( df= 39, p <0.05). There was no significant difference between plant heights outside and inside the fences ( df =39, p >0.05). (3) The plant coverage during both June and July were significantly lower outside the fences than inside the fences (June: df = 19, p<0.05; July: df = 19, p < 0.05), but during August plant coverage outside the fences was similar to that inside the fences ( df =19,p > 0.05). (4) The animal edible herbage outside the fences was significantly lower than that inside the fences ( df = 6, p<0.05). The percentage of Chinese Stellera among total plants outside the fences was significantly higher than that inside the fences ( df =6, p<0.05). (5) The biodiversity index of the plant community outside the fences was significantly higher than that inside the fences ( df=6, p <0.05). Based on the above results, we discuss the impacts of fencing on the range community and test the hypothesis that grazing affects the productivity of the plant community. We suggest solutions for range, endangered species and integrated biodiversity management.

Key words: northwestern China, biodiversity conservation, ecological crisis, studying ways