生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (3): 332-338.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002046

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

重要物种优先保护种群的确定

陈小勇, 陆慧萍,沈浪,李媛媛   

  1. 1 (华东师范大学环境科学系,  上海 200062)
    2 (教育部城市与环境开放实验室,  上海 200062)
  • 收稿日期:2001-09-05 修回日期:2002-05-03 出版日期:2002-08-20 发布日期:2002-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈小勇

Identifying populations for priority conservation of important species

CHEN Xiao-Yong,LU Hui-Ping,SHEN Lang,LI Yuan-Yuan   

  1. 1 Department of Environmental Science , East China Normal University , Shanghai 200062
    2 Urban and Environmental Open Laboratory , The Ministry of Education , Shanghai 200062
  • Received:2001-09-05 Revised:2002-05-03 Online:2002-08-20 Published:2002-08-20
  • Contact: CHEN XiaoYong

摘要: 由于同一物种不同种群的重要性不同、用于物种保护的资金有限以及保护与发展经济之间的矛盾,因此对于重要物种(尤其是濒危种类以及农作物和驯化动物的野生近缘种)需要确定保护什么以及保护哪儿。目前确定优先保护种群的方法主要有3类,分别为基于遗传变异、基于遗传差异性和基于遗传贡献率的方法。基于遗传变异的方法主要是根据遗传变异程度(尤其是等位基因多样性)来确定优先保护的顺序,但忽略了种群之间的遗传差异性,这容易使得存在于遗传变异程度较低的种群中的特有等位基因得不到有效保护。而基于遗传差异性的方法(如确定进化显著单元)则是从遗传分化程度的角度考虑优先性,即独特性越强的种群越具有保护价值。基于遗传贡献率的方法由于综合考虑了遗传多样性和差异性,最适合于确定哪些种群需要优先保护。我国开展此类研究十分必要。

AbstractDue to differences in the significance of populations, limits in funds for species conservation and conflict between conservation and economic development, deciding what and where to conserve is an essential step in managing important species, especially endangered species and wild relatives of crops and domesticated animals. There are three approaches to identifying populations for priority conservation of important species, including genetic variation-based, genetic distinctiveness-based and genetic contribution based. The genetic variation based approach chooses populations with high genetic variation, especially allelic diversity, for priority conservation. This approach does not consider genetic distinctiveness. Some distinctive alleles in populations with low genetic variation may not receive effective conservation based on this approach. In contrast, the distinctiveness-based approach, such as those based on evolutionarily significant units, chooses distinct populations for priority conservation. The genetic contribution based approach, a synthesis considering genetic variation and distinctiveness, is the most appropriate approach in determining which populations need priority conservation. We propose that this work should be considered urgent in China for some endangered or rare species.