生物多样性 ›› 2006, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (4): 292-299.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050275

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

铜鼓岭国家级自然保护区植物多样性

车秀芬1, 杨小波1*, 岳平2, 欧芷阳1, 李东海1, 吴庆书1   

  1. 1 (海南大学热带生物中心, 海口 570228)
    2 (海南省环境科学院, 海口 570206)
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-22 修回日期:2006-05-25 出版日期:2006-07-20 发布日期:2006-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨小波

Species diversity of forests in Tongguling National Nature Reserve, Hainan

Xiufen Che1, Xiaobo Yang1*, Ping Yue2, Zhiyang Ou1, Donghai Li1, Qingshu Wu1   

  1. 1 Tropical Biological Center, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    2 Environmental Sciences Academy of Hainan Province, Haikou 570206
  • Received:2005-12-22 Revised:2006-05-25 Online:2006-07-20 Published:2006-07-20
  • Contact: Xiaobo Yang

摘要: 铜鼓岭自然保护区地处海南岛东北部文昌县境内的滨海低丘陵。为全面了解其植物多样性及经过18年的保护后其植被变化特征, 作者采用野外调查与植物群落学相结合的方法, 对海南岛铜鼓岭保护区的各类植被多样性进行了调查。本次调查共记录到植物984种, 隶属166科618属。其中海南特有种35个, 如海南苏铁(Cycas hainanensis)、茶槁楠(Phoebe hainanensis)、古山龙(Arcangelisia gusanhung )等; 濒危保护物种12个, 分别为: 金毛狗(Cibotium barometz)、海南苏铁、蕉木(Oncodostigma hainanense)、白木香(Aquilaria sinensis)、海南大风子(Hydnocarpus hainanensis)、红花天料木(母生) (Homalium hainanense)、粘木(Ixonanthes chinensis)、毛茶(Antirhea chinensis)、野生龙眼(Dimocarpus longan)、野生荔枝(Litchi chinensis)、苦梓(Gmelina hainanensis)、白桂木(Artocarpus hypargyreus )。该保护区内的主要植被类型热带常绿季雨矮林、灌木林和红树林的Shannon-Wiener指数分别为4.7485、4.5876和1.8096, Simpson指数分别为0.9247、0.9206和0.6978。在热带常绿季雨矮林2,800 m2的标准样地内, 树高大于1.5 m的乔木共有81种1,366个个体, 重要值较高的物种分别为黄椿木姜(Litsea variabilis)、海南大风子、滨木患(Arytera littoralis)、禾串树(Bridelia insulana )、无患子(Sapindus mukorossi)等, 18年前的优势种鸭脚木(Schefflera octophylla)被黄椿木姜所替代。另外, 种数—个体数分析得出3,300 m2标准样方内高于1.5 m的单个体种有20种, 双个体种有13种, 占标准样方内所记录物种总数的32.7%。总体来说, 热带常绿季雨矮林群落发展稳定, 灌木林有向次生林演替的趋势, 红树林遭破坏严重, 面积减小, 多样性也不是很高。所以从植被角度来说对铜鼓岭自然保护区的保护是重要的。

关键词: 水韭, 濒危植物, 自然分布状况, 保护

AbstractTongguling National Nature Reserve is located in northeastern Hainan Province. To analyze its vegetation variation after 18 years of protection, we investigated the species diversity of plants in the reserve in 2005. A total of 984 plant species, belonging to 618 genera and 166 families, were recorded. Of these, 35 species are endemic to Hainan, such as Cycas hainanensis, Phoebe hainanensis, and Arcangelisia gusanhung, and 12 are listed as nationally endangered and protected species, including Cibotium barometz, Cycas hainanensis, Oncodostigma hainanense, Aquilaria sinensis, Hydnocarpus hainanensis, Homalium hainanense, Ixonanthes chinensis, Antirhea chinensis, Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, Gmelina hainanensis, and Artocarpus hypargyreus. The Shannon-Wiener indices of the three major vegetation types, namely tropical evergreen monsoon elfin forest, tropical shrubland, and mangrove forest, were 4.7485, 4.5876, and 1.8096, respectively, while Simpson diversity indices were 0.9247, 0.9206, and 0.6978, respectively. In the 2,800-m2 plots of tropical evergreen monsoon elfin forest, a total of 1,366 trees over 1.5 m tall were recorded, belonging to 81 species. Of these, the top five dominant species were Litsea variabilis, Hydnocarpus hainanensis, Arytera littoralis, Bridelia insulana, and Sapindus mukorossi. It is notable that the dominant species Schefflera octophylla in 1987 has been replaced by Litsea variabilis. Among the trees more than 1.5 m tall in the 3,300-m2 plots, there are 20 singleton species and 13 doubleton ones, accounting for 32.7% of the total tree species. In general, the development of tropical evergreen monsoon elfin forest tends to be stable, and shrublands are in succession to secondary forests. The area of mangrove forests has been reduced because of serious destruction. Therefore, further protection of Tongguling National Nature Reserve is important and necessary.

Key words: quillwort, endangered plant, natural distribution and status, conservation