Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 743-748.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019108

• Special Feature: Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Xishuangbanna cucumber landraces and associated traditional knowledge

Yang Yunhui1, Bai Keyu2, 3, Jarvis Devra4, Long Chunlin1, 5, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China
    2 Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    3 Bioversity International, Office for East Asia, Beijing 100081, China
    4 Bioversity International, 00057 Maccarese, Rome, Italy
    5 Key Laboratory of Ethnomedicine (Minzu University of China), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2019-03-28 Accepted:2019-05-14 Online:2019-08-20
  • Long Chunlin

The Xishuangbanna cucumber variety (XC), Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis, has been cultivated, managed and used for many generations by ethnic people in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, South Yunnan, China. It has become a significant crop landrace in local communities. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted in Xishuangbanna in 2017-2018 to collect the agronomic traits of XC and the associated traditional knowledge. The results show that the XC fruit is characterized by its shelf life and delicious flavor. The Dai, Jinuo, Yi, Yao and other ethnic communities were believed to historically possess rich traditional knowledge about XC. Most villagers today, however, did not grow XC and thus their XC genetic resources have been lost together with the traditional knowledge. Only a few households in the remote and high-altitude mountainous villages continue to cultivate very limited amounts of XC for family consumption. The genetic resources of XC and the associated traditional cultures have suffered rapid decline. We suggest that on-farm conservation should be adopted to protect both the genetic resources of XC and the associated traditional knowledge.

Key words: Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis, landrace, traditional knowledge, biodiversity, in situ conservation

Table 1

Sites investigated and cultivation status of Xishuangbanna cucumber landraces"

勐养 Mengyang 勐养集市 Mengyang Market 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
基诺族 Jinuo 亚诺寨 Yanuo 基诺族 Jinuo 否 No
巴卡小寨一组 Baka Village Group 1 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
巴卡小寨三组 Baka Village Group 3 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
新寨 Xinzhai 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
扎果树村 Zhaguoshu 基诺族 Jinuo 是 Yes
勐仑 Menglun 曼炸综合集贸市场 Manzha Market 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
曼纳堵村 Mannadu 傣族 Dai 否 No
勐伴 Mengban 城子一组 Chengzi Group 1 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
卡咪村 Kami 布朗族 Bulang 否 No
上回落村 Shanghuiluo 瑶族 Yao 否 No
尚勇 Shangyong 尚冈村 Shanggang 傣族 Dai 否 No
井冈村 Jinggang 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
王四龙村 Wangsilong 布朗族 Bulang 否 No
瑶区 Yaoqu 竜(龙)巴河小寨 Longbahe 瑶族 Yao 是 Yes
关累 Guanlei 回库村 Huiku 苗族、哈尼族 Miao, Hani 否 No
红毛树村 Hongmaoshu 哈尼族 Hani 是 Yes
盘新龙寨 Panxinlong 哈尼族 Hani 否 No
易武 Yiwu 易武集市 Yiwu Market 瑶族 Yao 是 Yes
象明 Xiangming / 彝族 Yi 是 Yes
打洛 Daluo 打洛农贸市场 Daluo Market 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
勐阿 Menga 城子村 Chengzi 傣族 Dai 否 No
嘎赛村 Gasai 傣族 Dai 否 No
曼短 Manduan 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
勐遮 Mengzhe 小旧笼 Xiaojiulong 汉族 Han 否 No
星火山村 Xinghuoshan 傣族 Dai 是 Yes
佤族寨 Wazu 佤族 Wa 否 No
[1] Bellon MR, Dulloo E, Sardos J, Thormann I, Burdon JJ ( 2017) In-situ conservation-harnessing natural and human derived evolutionary forces to ensure future crop adaptation. Evolutionary Applications, 10, 965-977.
[2] Bellon MR, Gotor E, Caracciolo F ( 2015) Conserving landraces and improving livelihoods: How to assess the success of on-farm conservation projects? International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 13, 167-182.
[3] Bo K, Song H, Shen J, Qian CT, Staub JE, Simon PW, Lou QF, Chen JF ( 2012) Inheritance and mapping of the ore gene controlling the quantity of β-carotene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endocarp. Molecular Breeding, 30, 335-344.
[4] Bo KL, Shen J, Qian CT, Song H, Chen JF ( 2011) Genetic analysis of the important agronomic traits on ‘Beijingjietou’ × Xishuangbanna cucumber recombinant inbred lines. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 34(3), 20-24. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 薄凯亮, 沈佳, 钱春桃, 宋慧, 陈劲枫 ( 2011) ‘北京截头’ × 西双版纳黄瓜重组自交系群体重要农艺性状的遗传分析. 南京农业大学学报, 34(3), 20-24.]
[5] Brookfield H, Stocking M ( 1999) Agrodiversity: Definition, description and design. Global Environmental Change, 9, 77-80.
[6] Camacho V, Taina C, Maxted N, Scholten M, Ford-Lloyd B ( 2005) Defining and identifying crop landraces. Plant Genetic Resources, 3, 373-384.
[7] Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture ( 2013) Reviewing the Roles of Animal Genetic Resources and Options for Their Conservation, pp. 4-5. UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
[8] Gotor E, Bellon MR, Turdieva M, Baymetov K, Nazarov P, Dorohova-Shreder E, Arzumanov V, Dzavakyants M, Abdurasulov A, Chernova G, Butkov E, Caracciolo F ( 2018) Livelihood implications of in situ-on farm conservation strategies of fruit species in Uzbekistan. Agroforestry Systems, 92, 1253-1266.
[9] Guo HJ, Long CL ( 1998) Biodiversity of Yunnan, pp. 102-107. Yunnan Science Technology Press, Kunming. (in Chinese)
[ 郭辉军, 龙春林 ( 1998) 云南的生物多样性, 102-107页. 云南科技出版社, 昆明.]
[10] Guo HJ, Padoch C, Fu YN, Chen AG, Dao ZL ( 2000) Agrobiodiversity assessment and in-situ conservation. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 22(Suppl. XII), 27-41. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 郭辉军, Padoch C, 付永能, 陈爱国, 刀志灵 ( 2000) 农业生物多样性评价与就地保护. 云南植物研究, 22(Suppl. XII), 27-41.]
[11] Huang SW, Li RQ, Zhang ZH, Li L, Gu XF, Fan W, Lucas WJ, Wang XW, Xie BY, Ni PX, Ren YY, Zhu HM, Li J, Lin K, Jin WW, Fei ZJ, Li GC, Staub J, Kilian A, van der Vossen EA, Wu Y, Guo J, He J, Jia ZQ, Ren Y, Tian G, Lu Y, Ruan J, Qian WB, Wang MW, Huang QF, Li B, Xuan ZL, Cao JJ, Asan, Wu ZG, Zhang JB, Cai QL, Bai YQ, Zhao BW, Han YH, Li Y, Li XF, Wang SH, Shi QX, Liu SQ, Cho WK, Kim JY, Xu Y, Heller-Uszynska K, Miao H, Cheng ZC, Zhang SP, Wu J, Yang YH, Kang HX, Li M, Liang HQ, Ren XL, Shi ZB, Wen M, Jian M, Yang HL, Zhang GJ, Yang ZT, Chen R, Liu SF, Li JW, Ma LJ, Liu H, Zhou Y, Zhao J, Fang XD, Li GQ, Fang L, Li YR, Liu DY, Zheng HK, Zhang Y, Qin N, Li Z, Yang GH, Yang S, Bolund L, Kristiansen K, Zheng HC, Li SC, Zhang XQ, Yang HM, Wang J, Sun RF, Zhang BX, Jiang SZ, Wang J, Du YC, Li SG ( 2009) The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Nature Genetics, 41, 1275-1281.
[12] Lei QY, Zhou JJ, Luo J, Zhang WH, Sun J, Long CL ( 2017) Changes in the numbers of Kam fragrant glutinous rice varieties in the Dong regions of Guizhou Province. Biodiversity Science, 25, 990-998. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 雷启义, 周江菊, 罗静, 张文华, 孙军, 龙春林 ( 2017) 贵州侗族地区香禾糯品种多样性的变化. 生物多样性, 25, 990-998.]
[13] Li M, Gong YQ, Miao H, Wu J, Gu XF, Zhang SP, Wang XW ( 2010) Fine mapping of the foliage bitterness gene (Bi) in Cucumis sativus. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 37, 1073-1078. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李曼, 龚义勤, 苗晗, 武剑, 顾兴芳, 张圣平, 王晓武 ( 2010) 黄瓜营养体苦味基因Bi的定位. 园艺学报, 37, 1073-1078.]
[14] Li XX, Zhu DW, Du YC, Shen D, Kong QS, Song JP ( 2004) Studies on genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm by AFLP technique. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 31, 309-314. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李锡香, 朱德蔚, 杜永臣, 沈镝, 孔秋生, 宋江萍 ( 2004) 黄瓜种质资源遗传多样性及其亲缘关系的AFLP分析. 园艺学报, 31, 309-314.]
[15] Li Z, Huang SW, Liu SQ, Pan JS, Zhang ZH, Tao QY, Shi QX, Jia ZQ, Zhang WW, Chen HM, Si LT, Zhu LH, Cai R ( 2009) Molecular isolation of the M gene suggests that a conserved-residue conversion induces the formation of bisexual flowers in cucumber plants. Genetics, 182, 1381-1385.
[16] Martin GJ ( translated by Pei SJ, He SA ) ( 1998) Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, p. 102. Yunnan Science Technology Press, Kunming. (in Chinese)
[ 裴盛基, 贺善安 ( 译)( 1998) 民族植物学手册, 102页. 云南科学技术出版社, 昆明.]
[17] Qi CZ, Yuan ZZ, Li YX ( 1983) A new type of cucumber— Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 10, 259-263. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 戚春章, 袁珍珍, 李玉湘 ( 1983) 黄瓜新类型——西双版纳黄瓜. 园艺学报, 10, 259-263.]
[18] Shen D, Fang ZY, Li XX, Li QH, Cheng JQ, Song JP, Wang HP, Qiu Y ( 2011) Inheritance of fruit flesh color in Cucumis sativus L. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 12, 216-222. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 沈镝, 方智远, 李锡香, 李全辉, 程嘉琪, 宋江萍, 王海平, 邱杨 ( 2011) 黄瓜果肉色的遗传分析. 植物遗传资源学报, 12, 216-222.]
[19] Shen D, Fang ZY, Qi CZ, Zhao JY, Song JP, Li QH, Li XX ( 2009 a) Genetic diversity analyses of Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis population based on SSR markers. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 36, 1457-1464. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 沈镝, 方智远, 戚春章, 赵金艳, 宋江萍, 李全辉, 李锡香 ( 2009 a) 西双版纳黄瓜群体遗传多样性的SSR分析. 园艺学报, 36, 1457-1464.]
[20] Shen D, Li XX, Fang ZY, Jin S, Liu FW ( 2009 b) Analysis on the nutrition components in the fruits of Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis during maturation. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 10, 594-598. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 沈镝, 李锡香, 方智远, 靳松, 刘发万 ( 2009 b) 不同类型西双版纳黄瓜果实成熟期营养成分分析. 植物遗传资源学报, 10, 594-598.]
[21] Shen D, Li XX, Fang ZY, Qi CZ, Song JP, Wang HP, Qiu Y ( 2010) Preliminary study on morphological identification and phylogenetic relationship of Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis germplasm. China Vegetables, 1(2), 21-27. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 沈镝, 李锡香, 方智远, 戚春章, 宋江萍, 王海平, 邱杨 ( 2010) 西双版纳黄瓜种质资源形态鉴定和亲缘关系的初步研究. 中国蔬菜, 1(2), 21-27.]
[22] Shen SC, Xu GF, Li DY, Clements DR, Zhang FD, Jin GM, Wu JY, Wei PF, Lin S, Xue DY ( 2017) Agrobiodiversity and in situ conservation in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 13, 1-15.
[23] Simon P, Navazio J ( 1997) Early Orange Mass 400, Early Orange Mass 402, and Late Orange Mass 404: High-carotene cucumber germplasm. HortScience, 32, 144-145.
[24] Soleri D, Smith SE ( 1995) Morphological and phenological comparisons of two hopi maize varieties conserved in situ and ex situ. Economic Botany, 49, 56-77.
[25] Sponenberg DP ( 2014) Genetic resources and their conservation. In: The Genetics of the Horse (eds Bowling AT, Ruvinsky A), pp. 392-393. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire.
[26] Wang HP, Li XX, Song JP ( 2018) Vegetable genetic resources in China. Horticultural Plant Journal, 4, 83-88.
[27] Wood D, Lenné JM ( 1997) The conservation of agrobiodiversity on-farm: Questioning the emerging paradigm. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6, 109-129.
[28] Xu HG, Wang SQ, Xue DY ( 1999) Biodiversity conservation in China: Legislation, plans and measures. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 819-837.
[29] Zeven AC ( 1998) Landraces: A review of definitions and classifications. Euphytica, 104, 127-139.
[30] Zhang WW, He HL, Guan Y, Du H, Yuan LH, Li Z, Yao DQ, Pan JS, Cai R ( 2010) Identification and mapping of molecular markers linked to the tuberculate fruit gene in the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 120, 645-654.
[1] Lintao Huang Hui Huang Lei Jiang. (2020) A revised taxonomy for Chinese hermatypic corals . Biodiv Sci, 28(4): 515-523.
[2] Xiongwei Yang,Ankang Wu,Qixian Zou,Guangrong Li,Mingming Zhang,Canshi Hu,Haijun Su. (2020) Field monitoring of mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 219-225.
[3] Haiou Liu,Fengchun Zhang,Fuwei Zhao,Leshan Du,Dayuan Xue. (2020) Biodiversity sensitive issues from changes in the strategic objectives of the financial mechanism for the Convention on Biological Diversity . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 244-252.
[4] Yisheng Ma,Qingqing Ma,Nianjun He,Dapeng Zhu,Kaihui Zhao,Hongcai Liu,Shuai Li,Liang Sun,Liubin Tang. (2020) Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Foping National Nature Reserve, China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 226-230.
[5] Kai Wang,Jinlong Ren,Hongman Chen,Zhitong Lyu,Xianguang Guo,Ke Jiang,Jinmin Chen,Jiatang Li,Peng Guo,Yingyong Wang,Jing Che. (2020) The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 189-218.
[6] Yi Li,Zhiyao Tang,Yujing Yan,Ke Wang,Lei Cai,Jinsheng He,Song Gu,Yijian Yao. (2020) Incorporating species distribution model into the red list assessment and conservation of macrofungi: A case study with Ophiocordyceps sinensis . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 99-106.
[7] WANG Yu-Bing,SUN Yi-Han,DING Wei,ZHANG En-Tao,LI Wen-Huai,CHI Yong-Gang,ZHENG Shu-Xia. (2020) Effects and pathways of long-term nitrogen addition on plant diversity and primary productivity in a typical steppe . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(1): 22-32.
[8] Wenying Zhuang,Yi Li,Huandi Zheng,Zhaoqing Zeng,Xincun Wang. (2020) Threat status of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes in China and its threatening factors . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 26-40.
[9] Shun Li,Liang Zou,Yinan Gong,Haitao Yang,Tianming Wang,Limin Feng,Jianping Ge. (2019) Advances in LiDAR technology in the field of animal ecology . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 1021-1031.
[10] Rui Yang,Qinyi Peng,Yue Cao,Le Zhong,Shuyu Hou,Zhicong Zhao,Cheng Huang. (2019) Transformative changes and paths toward biodiversity conservation in China . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 1032-1040.
[11] Yongmin Li,Xiaobing Wu. (2019) A revised species list of amphibians and reptiles in the Anhui Province . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 1002-1011.
[12] Junning Li, Tong Li, Yulian Wei. (2019) Relationship between diversity of wood-decaying fungi and their host wood in the Fenglin National Nature Reserve . Biodiv Sci, 27(8): 880-886.
[13] Cao Ning, Xue Dayuan. (2019) On biodiversity conservation by Zhuang traditional culture: A case study in Jingxi City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 728-734.
[14] Zhang Yuanyuan. (2019) China’s strategy for incorporating traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity into international multi-lateral agreements . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 708-715.
[15] Wang Guoping, Xue Dayuan, Wen Yi, Cheng Gong, Min Qingwen. (2019) Diversity of traditional knowledge related to utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in China . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 735-742.
Full text