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Table of Content
    Volume 27 Issue 7
    20 July 2019
    Hani Terraces is a typical agro-forestry complex ecosystem mainly located along Mount Ailao and Honghe Basin, southern Yunnan, China, concentrated in Honghe Prefecture, counties of Yuanyang, Lüchun, Jinping, with a total coverage of 55,000 ha. The terrace history spans around 1,300 years and it is a bio-cultural landscape created by Hani ethnic people during the long-term agricultural practices, with rich traditional knowledge on old rice varieties breeding, terrace maintenance, water allocation and land management, selected as a World Heritage Site in 2013. Hani Terraces is compounded by “forest-village-terraces-river valley” and the integration of these four sub-ecosystems can enhance the ecosystem’s stability to cope with natural disasters and climatic extremities, and provide sustainability for food production and other ecosystem services. Hani terraces is a demonstrated technical innovation of traditional knowledge created by Hani and other ethnic minorities in their long history agricultural practice, which is helpful for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources. (Photo Credit: Dayuan Xue)
    Special Feature: Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity
    Conservation and outlook of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity
    Xue Dayuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  705-707.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019232
    Abstract ( 1342 )   HTML ( 37 )   PDF (464KB) ( 519 )   Save
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    China’s strategy for incorporating traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity into international multi-lateral agreements
    Zhang Yuanyuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  708-715.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019073
    Abstract ( 1606 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (711KB) ( 703 )   Save
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    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Nagoya Protocol (NP) on Access and Benefit Sharing, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the World Trade Organization’s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (WTO/TRIPS), and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) all incorporate biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to some extent. However, the definitions and implications are not unified and their focuses are different. China is a multi-ethnic country blessed with mega-biodiversity. Throughout history, Chinese people have developed systems of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices that are relevant to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. As a party to multiple international agreements concerning associated traditional knowledge, China is responsible to provide in-depth understanding and definitions of the relevant agreements for traditional knowledge. The country’s international obligations under these agreements are to promote synergies on traditional knowledge and to deliver a unified voice in international negotiations, so as to better defend the interests of the country and the local communities. We explored a variety of definitions of biodiversity associated traditional knowledge within relevant multi-lateral agreements, organizations and international bodies. We then summarized the progress being made by the international system in this regard, and proposed five specific countermeasures for China to deal with the issue of biodiversity associated traditional knowledge in negotiating and implementing those agreements. This was done while taking into account the status and features of China’s associated traditional knowledge system, the existing policies and measures. These include: (1) Take legislative, administrative and policy action; (2) Strengthen relevant research in order to improve technical support; (3) Strengthen capacity building regarding protection of traditional knowledge; (4) Strengthen coordination with other international agreements concerning traditional knowledge during implementation; (5) Step up publicity efforts in international forums, to promote China’s traditional knowledge.

    Visual analysis of hotspots and emerging trends in traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity
    Ding Lubin, Ma Nan, Wang Guoping, He Siyuan, Min Qingwen
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  716-727.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019130
    Abstract ( 1369 )   HTML ( 38 )   PDF (2696KB) ( 653 )   Save
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    Research on traditional knowledge has become increasingly more popular for biodiversity conservation research, as it has a great impact on a wide range of fields such as biological resource management, ecosystem services, community sustainable development and more. In order to understand how research on traditional knowledge is changing, this paper uses Web of Science (WoS) and applies WoS’s statistical analysis function and visualization analysis software CiteSpace III to search for key co-occurrence analysis, emergent word analysis, literature co-citation analysis, and other methods to understand research hotspots and evolution of traditional knowledge research systematically. The number of research papers on traditional knowledge research is increasing yearly. Research institutions such as the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the Indian Council for Agricultural Research and the University of California system have shown strong scientific research strength; Africa, Brazil, Bolivia and India are hotspots for traditional knowledge research. We found that Albuquerque UP, Singh R and Xue DY have published a substantial quantity of academic papers in this field. Additionally, papers published by Berkes F, Drew JA, Gómez-Baggethun E and other scholars have laid a solid foundation for this field and the promotion of related research. Studies on traditional knowledge related to biological resource management, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services, and policy management represent important directions in this field in the future.

    On biodiversity conservation by Zhuang traditional culture: A case study in Jingxi City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    Cao Ning, Xue Dayuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  728-734.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019076
    Abstract ( 1310 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (812KB) ( 749 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    The Zhuang ethnic people have a deep and expansive culture; many aspects of which have been documented through literature and field research, including acidic foods, textile dyeing, toponymy, literature and art, natural worship, folk customs and customary laws, traditional ecological concepts, and traditional medical. Here, we analyzed the protective effects of cultural diversity on biodiversity. The results show that: (1) The cultural diversity of Zhuang ethnic people and local biodiversity are closely interrelated. Rich biodiversity has generated a colorful traditional culture, and the formation and development of traditional culture can directly or indirectly enrich the local biodiversity; (2) The traditional culture and knowledge created of the Zhuang people in the long-term living history has greatly promoted the conservation and sustainable use of local biodiversity, and the protection of biodiversity will further guarantee the inheritance of local traditional culture. This paper also discusses the developing status and threatened factors of traditional knowledge and culture. We propose some suggestions to ensure the continuity of Zhuang traditional culture and use traditional knowledge sustainably: enhancing the protection of traditional knowledge and traditional culture by strengthening publicity and legislation, establishing traditional knowledge databases and developing rural tourism.

    Diversity of traditional knowledge related to utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in China
    Wang Guoping, Xue Dayuan, Wen Yi, Cheng Gong, Min Qingwen
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  735-742.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019119
    Abstract ( 1100 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (761KB) ( 526 )   Save
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    Traditional knowledge (TK) related to the utilization of biological resources is a knowledge system for identifying and utilizing biological resources. With the development of modern biotechnology, TK highlights its values of science, economy, culture and even food security. In accordance with the Technical Regulations on Classification, Investigation and Documentation of Traditional Knowledge Related to Biodiversity (Trial Version), this study conducted the systematic investigation and documentation of the TK related to the utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in different ethnic agglomeration areas in Qinghai Province, and applied biodiversity index to TK diversity analysis. The results show that: (1) 424 items of TK of Tu nationality’s utilization of biological resources have been documented. (2) The α diversity index (DTK) of TK of Tu nationality is 0.67, which indicates that the diversity of TK of Tu nationality is high; but the β diversity index of TK varies in different counties, indicating that the TK of Tu nationality has unique spatial distribution in different areas with uneven and patchy characteristics. This study applied biodiversity index to TK diversity analysis and verified with the TK of Tu nationality as an example. It could be concluded that the diversity index of TK could not only objectively and practically quantify the diversity of TK but also provide the fundamental basis for establishing a quantitative research methodology of TK in the future.

    Xishuangbanna cucumber landraces and associated traditional knowledge
    Yang Yunhui, Bai Keyu, Jarvis Devra, Long Chunlin
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  743-748.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019108
    Abstract ( 2064 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (664KB) ( 680 )   Save
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    The Xishuangbanna cucumber variety (XC), Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis, has been cultivated, managed and used for many generations by ethnic people in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, South Yunnan, China. It has become a significant crop landrace in local communities. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted in Xishuangbanna in 2017-2018 to collect the agronomic traits of XC and the associated traditional knowledge. The results show that the XC fruit is characterized by its shelf life and delicious flavor. The Dai, Jinuo, Yi, Yao and other ethnic communities were believed to historically possess rich traditional knowledge about XC. Most villagers today, however, did not grow XC and thus their XC genetic resources have been lost together with the traditional knowledge. Only a few households in the remote and high-altitude mountainous villages continue to cultivate very limited amounts of XC for family consumption. The genetic resources of XC and the associated traditional cultures have suffered rapid decline. We suggest that on-farm conservation should be adopted to protect both the genetic resources of XC and the associated traditional knowledge.

    Action research on Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) conservation in Tibetan community in NW Yunnan
    Yang Lixin, Pei Shengji, Zhang Yu
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  749-757.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019081
    Abstract ( 1287 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (1103KB) ( 1415 )   Save
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    The Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) encompass culturally significant, ritually protected sites in the Baima National Nature Reserve. Animistic and Tibetan Buddhist custodians of these sites have used traditional knowledge to conserve these sites for generations. Here, we assess how the Tibetan traditional eco-conservation culture conserves biodiversity, promotes community-based conservation, and restores forest ecosystems using methods of applied ethnobotany and ethnoecology. In particular, we applied strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analyses and community participatory approaches in three Tibetan SNS: Bazhu, Kegong, and Zhuida in Baima National Nature Reserve and its surrounding area in Shangrila County of Deqin Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province.Our results show that the driving force for community conservation of biodiversity comes from the established, traditional cultures and the dependence of community livelihoods on biodiversity. We conclude that community conservation on Sacred Nature Sites is an important way to protect biological and cultural diversity, as well as livelihood development at the community level. The Tibetan community's long-term compliance with, and practice of, SNS conservation has been a significant contribution to biodiversity conservation throughout the region.

    Original Papers
    The spatial overlapping analysis for China’s natural protected area and countermeasures for the optimization and integration of protected area system
    Ma Tonghui, Lü Cai, Lei Guangchun
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  758-771.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019087
    Abstract ( 3684 )   HTML ( 88 )   PDF (8626KB) ( 1412 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    The construction of natural protected area system is a biodiversity conservation strategy which has been highly emphasized by international communities. In recent years, China expresses its concerns about the overlapping and intersection of natural protected area and proposed Guidance on Establishing a Natural Protected Area System Dominated by National Parks. To implement the proposed strategy, it is important to conduct a systematic study on the relationship and spatial distribution of the natural protected areas. This study collected data from 8,572 natural protected areas in different categories and administrative levels, including coordinates, types of ecosystems, administrative regions and boundaries. Among them, 1,532 natural protected areas with spatial overlapping and cross-jurisdictions were selected. Geographic concentration index (G) was calculated, and ArcGIS software was adopted for Kernel density estimation. Finally, the spatial distribution patterns, overlap of protected areas in ecological and geographic zones, ecosystem types, agencies with crossing jurisdiction and province locations were obtained. The results showed that: (1) Natural protected areas were concentrated in mountainous areas in central Shandong, Taihang Mountain, Dabie Mountain, Tianmu-Huaiyu Mountain and Wanjiang region, across multiple wetlands and forest ecosystems (Mean > 6, Max > 8). Among 10 pilot national parks, only Giant panda, Nanshan and Qianjiangyuan were located in areas with high density of overlapping; (2) The former State Administration of Forestry and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development had the largest number of sites under cross-jurisdiction among all the former agencies; (3) The number of overlapping natural protected areas in Heilongjiang, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Hunan provinces are significantly higher than other provinces. The overlap between Shanxi-Hebei-Henan and Anhui-Hubei-Jiangxi provinces is higher, and there is moderate overlap in other provinces. The areas studied above could become key priority areas for reassembling and optimizing China’s protected area system. Based on overlap hot zones, priority zones for biodiversity conservation, and cultural ecosystem services, this paper proposes a framework for reassembling and optimizing overlapped protected areas. According to 3 new protected area categories including national parks, nature reserves and natural parks, suggestions are given prioritizing reassembling and associating the area with a new category, which would provide a reference scheme to the urgent needs of ongoing reform of China’s natural protected areas system.

    Phenotypic selection analysis of flower traits in Delphinium kamaonense var. glabrescens (Ranunculaceae)
    Lu Ningna, Liu Zhenheng, Ma Yan, Lu Guangmei, Meng Xiuxiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  772-777.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019067
    Abstract ( 989 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (672KB) ( 664 )   Save
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    It has been widely accepted that pollinator-mediated selection is responsible for the evolution of flower traits. To date, two distinct methods of phenotypic manipulation and phenotypic selection analyses have been used to demonstrate flower function and potential selection. However, empirical studies combining both methods are rare in wild plants. Through manipulating sepal size of Delphinium kamaonense var. glabrescens (Ranunculaceae) and performing phenotypic selection analysis, this study examined functions of two flower traits and the potential selection on them. Sepals manipulated to be smaller significantly decreased visitation rate of pollinators, but did not affect seed number per flower or seed set. Sepal size mainly affected pollen export mediated by pollinator attraction rather seed production. Phenotypic selection estimated through female fitness showed no significant gradient with varying sepal width and length. However, significant linear selection differential and selection gradient on the spur length were observed, showing higher seed production in individuals with longer floral spurs. This study suggests different function and potential fitness consequences of floral traits that were subject to natural selection.

    Species diversity and global distribution of Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) using online databases
    Jiao Meng, Li Jing, Zhao Huifeng, Wu Chunsheng, Zhang Aibing
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  778-786.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019132
    Abstract ( 1825 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF (2300KB) ( 1140 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) is a globally distributed insect and is classified as a pest destroying economic and roadway trees. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the species diversity and global distribution of Limacodidae and to explore the reasons for uneven distribution patterns, which could provide a scientific basis for biodiversity conservation and pest control. Detailed information was downloaded and analyzed from the Barcode of Life Data System V4 (BOLD V4) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), as well as other local databases of Lepidoptera and related research. A total of 61,947 global distributional records of Limacodidae with explicit coordinates were gathered, including 187 genera and 637 species. At the biogeographic realm scale, 72 genera were recorded in Indomalayan realm, 31 in the Palearctic realm, 27 in the Australasian realm, 27 in the Neotropical realm, 22 in the Afrotropical realm, and 19 in the Nearctic realm. At the national scale, China has the highest species richness (123 species), followed by Vietnam (116 species), Costa Rica (75 species), and then Australia (69 species). The higher species diversity and richness of the Limacodidae in mid-low latitudinal regions may be related to stable climatic history and a vast number of host plants in these regions.

    Spring and autumn shrimp and crab biodiversity in the east Nanji Islands
    Sun Beibei, Yu Cungen, Liu Hui, Yan Wenchao, Zhang Wenjun, Dai Dongxu
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  787-795.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019098
    Abstract ( 1327 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (1079KB) ( 435 )   Save
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    We studied the shrimp and crab community and species biodiversity by performing a survey of the bottom-trawling fishery resources in the eastern Nanji Islands National Marine Nature Reserve in November 2017 and May 2018. The results indicated that: (1) A total of 30 shrimp and crab species were identified, including 16 shrimp species belonging to 12 genera in 6 families of one order, and 14 crab species belonging to 6 genera in 5 families of one order. (2) The number of shrimp and crab species was higher in autumn than in spring, and there were gradually more species as we traveled southward across the survey area in both seasons. (3) Dominant species in the spring were Portunus trituberculatus, Charybdis bimaculata, Alpheus juponicus, Parapenaeopsis tenella and Charybdis japonica. Dominant species in the autumn were Portunus trituberculatus, Charybdis bimaculata and Charybdis japonica. There were no dominant shrimp species in the autumn. (4) The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the Pielou’s evenness index were higher in the spring than in the autumn. The species richness index was much higher in the autumn than in the spring. (5) According to hierarchical cluster and non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analyses, shrimp and crabs can be divided into three communities. (6) The abundance-biomass comparison curve (ABC curve) showed that the shrimp and crab communities were stable and undisturbed.

    Classification and identification of plant species based on multi-source remote sensing data: Research progress and prospect
    Kong Jiaxin, Zhang Zhaochen, Zhang Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  796-812.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019197
    Abstract ( 4072 )   HTML ( 152 )   PDF (2212KB) ( 3178 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Species classification and identification is the basis of biodiversity monitoring, and is critical to deal with almost all ecological questions. In this paper, we aim to understand the current status and existing problems in plant species classification and identification using multi-source remote sensing data. We summarized the studies in this field since the year 2000, and found that most of these studies focus on temperate or boreal forests in Europe and North America, or African savanna. Airborne hyperspectral data is the most widely used remote sensing data source, and the LiDAR, as a supplementary data, significantly improves the classification accuracy through the information of single tree segmentation and three-dimensional vertical structure. Support vector machine and random forest are the most widely used non-parametric classification algorithms with an average classification accuracy of 80%. With the development of computer technology and machine learning, artificial neural network has developed rapidly in species identification. Based on the literature-based analysis, we propose that the current research in this field is still facing some challenges, including the complexity of classification objects, the effective integration of multi-source remote sensing data, the integration of plant phenology and texture characteristics, and the improvement in plant classification algorithm. The accuracy of plant classification and identification could be greatly improved by using the high-frequency data collection over time, the integration of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, the use of specific spectral information such as short-wave infrared imagery, and the development of novel deep learning techniques.

    Camera-trapping survey on mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China
    Zhang Mingming, Yang Zhaohui, Wang Cheng, Wang Jiaojiao, Hu Canshi, Lei Xiaoping, Shi Lei, Su Haijun, Li Jiaqi
    Biodiv Sci. 2019, 27 (7):  813-818.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019131
    Abstract ( 1460 )   HTML ( 45 )   PDF (2043KB) ( 940 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Camera-trapping allows scientists to gain new insights into the protection status and threats toward biodiversity. Mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve were monitored using 40 camera traps in 2 independent plots based on grid sampling survey method. A total of 3,199 independent images (out of 14,119 recognizable images) were collected with an extensive survey effort of 14,808 camera-days during April 2017 to December 2018. 61 species within 9 orders and 22 families were recorded and identified, including 26 mammal species belonging to 4 orders and 12 families, and 35 avian species belonging to 5 orders and 10 families. Among the recorded species, Rhinopithecus brelichi and Syrmaticus ellioti are listed as Class I National Protected Wildlife in China. Worth noting, Rhinopithecus brelichi is listed as Endangered (EN) in the IUCN Red List, 9 species listed as Class II, 5 species as Vulnerable (VU), and 8 species as Near Threatened (NT). The relative abundance index (RAI) is widely used to assess the regional species abundance. The five most abundant mammal species with highest RAIs in Fanjingshan Naitonal Nature Reserve were Macaca thibetana (RAI = 28.23), Elaphodus cephalophus (RAI = 15.46), Sus scrofa (RAI = 11.82), Muntiacus reevesi (RAI = 9.05) and Rhinopithecus brelichi (RAI = 7.70). Additionally, the five most abundant avian species with highest RAIs were Myophonus insularis (RAI = 10.33), Tragopan temminckii (RAI = 9.59), Chrysolophus pictus (RAI = 6.96), Syrmaticus ellioti (RAI = 3.71) and Pucrasia macrolopha (RAI = 1.55). During the study, intensive livestock (RAI = 11.14) and human (RAI = 12.90) activities were recorded, which may elucidate the potential threat to the protection of wildlife and their habitat. We recommended that the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau should take more actions in improving the public awareness to protect wildlife, and in promoting the harmonious development of the reserve and local communities.

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