Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 624-629.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14051

Special Issue: Marine Biodiversity Special Feature

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Biodiversity and trophic level characteristics of fishes captured by set nets in Tong’an Bay, Xiamen

Jianji Liao, Xinqing Zheng, Jianguo Du*, Bin Chen, Zhiyuan Ma, Wenjia Hu   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2014-03-12 Accepted:2014-09-15 Online:2014-10-09

The diversity and trophic levels of fish species in Tong’an Bay were described based on monthly set net fishing surveys from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 112 species belonging to 88 genera, 53 families and 15 orders were recorded. According to their habitat strata, the fishes were grouped into 3 types, among them 15 species were pelagic, 18 near demersal, and 79 demersal. According to adaptation to temperature, the fishes were divided into 2 types, 84 species were warm water and the other 28 were warm-temperate species. In terms of food habits, there were 4 types, of which 8 species were omnivores, 71 lower carnivorous, 30 middle carnivorous and 3 higher carnivorous. Tachysurus sinensis was the dominant species in summer, autumn and winter, while Polydactylus sextarius, Butis koilomatodon and Tridentiger barbatus were the dominant species in spring and winter. The highest body mass and individual Shannon-Wiener diversity index were 3.26 and 3.29 in November, and the lowest values were 1.78 and 1.77 in February, respectively. The fish community showed distinct seasonal changes, with the lowest monthly change rate of fishes of 40.1% in June, and the highest was 68.6% in March. The mean trophic level also showed significant changes, the minimum was 3.02 in March, the maximum was 3.92 in January, and the average mean trophic level was 3.52. Comparing our data set with previous data from 2003-2004, we found that the species number, species composition and the dominant species in Tong’an Bay all changed significantly. Overfishing, habitat loss and environmental pollution were identified as main factors causing the decline in fish diversity in Tong’an Bay.

Key words: bay, biodiversity, marine food web, trophic level

Fig. 1

Sampling sites of set nets in Tong’an Bay"

Table 1

Catalogues of fish species captured by set nets in Tong’an Bay"


Family

Genus

Species
软骨鱼纲 Chondrichthyes
须鲨目 Orectolobiformes

1

1

1
真鲨目 Carcharhiniformes 1 1 1
鳐形目 Rajiformes 1 1 1
鲼形目 Myliobatiformes 1 1 1
辐鳍鱼纲 Actinopterygii
海鲢目 Elopiformes 1 1 1
鲱形目 Clupeiformes 2 4 6
仙女鱼目 Aulopiformes 1 2 2
鳗鲡目 Anguilliformes 4 6 8
鲇形目 Siluriformes 2 2 2
刺鱼目 Gasterosteiformes 1 1 1
鲻形目 Mugiliformes 1 3 3
鲈形目 Perciformes 28 51 65
鲉形目 Scorpaeniformes 2 4 4
鲽形目 Pleuronectiformes 4 7 10
鲀形目 Tetraodontiformes 3 3 6
合计 Total 53 88 112

Table 2

Seasonal variation of dominant fishes captured by set nets in Tong’an Bay"

种类 Species 季节 Seasons 营养级
Trophic level
春季 Spring 夏季 Summer 秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter
海鳗 Muraenesox cinereus * 4.1
中华海鲶 Tachysurus sinensis * * * 3.9
棱鮻 Liza carinata * 2.6
褐菖鮋 Sebastiscus marmoratus * 3.6
短吻鰏 Leiognathus brevirostris * 3.0
短棘银鲈 Gerres limbatus ** 3.5
黄鳍棘鲷 Acanthopagrus latus * 3.2
六指多指马鲅 Polydactylus sextarius * * 3.8
皮氏叫姑鱼 Johnius belangerii * 3.3
黄姑鱼 Nibea albiflora * 3.3
圆口副绯鲤 Parupeneus cyclostomus * 3.6
花鳍副海猪鱼 Parajulis poecilepterus * 3.4
锯脊塘鳢 Butis koilomatodon * * 4.0
髭缟鰕虎鱼 Tridentiger barbatus * * 3.2
纹缟鰕虎鱼 T. trigonocephalus * 3.3
斑纹舌鰕虎鱼 Glossogobius olivaceus * 3.7
犬牙细棘鰕虎鱼 Acentrogobius caninus * 3.5
斑尾复鰕虎鱼 Synechogobius ommaturus * 3.5
触角沟鰕虎鱼 Oxyurichthys tentacularis * 4.2
多须拟矛尾鰕虎鱼 Parachaeturichthys polynema * 3.1
孔鰕虎鱼 Trypauchen vagina * 3.5
褐蓝子鱼 Siganus fuscescens * 2.3
鲬属-种 Platycephalus sp.1 * 3.6
卵鳎 Solea ovata * 3.5

Table 3

Species diversities of fishes in Tong’an Bay during 2012 and 2013"

指数
Index
采样月份 Sampling month
2012 2013
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3
鱼类种数 Species (S) 32 30 17 25 17 27 36 40 33 38 14 30
总尾数 Individuals (N) 110 281 36 61 118 107 236 194 157 156 74 276
尾数多样性指数 Individual Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′) 3.18 2.85 2.59 2.81 2.17 2.99 2.90 3.29 2.96 2.97 1.77 2.77
尾数均匀度指数 Individual Pielou’s evenness index (J') 0.67 0.51 0.72 0.68 0.46 0.64 0.53 0.63 0.59 0.59 0.41 0.49
丰富度指数 Margalef richness index (SR) 6.59 5.14 4.46 5.84 3.35 5.56 6.41 7.40 6.33 7.33 3.02 5.16
重量多样性指数 Body mass Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′) 1.96 2.75 2.14 2.75 2.33 2.93 2.69 3.26 2.76 2.45 1.78 2.21
重量均匀度指数 Weight Pielou’s evenness index (J') 0.42 0.49 0.60 0.67 0.49 0.63 0.49 0.62 0.55 0.48 0.41 0.39

Fig. 2

Monthly change rate of fishes captured in Tong’an Bay"

Fig. 3

Monthly changes of fishes trophic levels in Tong’an Bay"

Table S1

The list of fishes captured by set nets in Tong’an Bay during 2012 and 2013; http://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/PDF/w2014-051-1.pdf"

种类 Species 采样月份 Sampling month 适温性
Temperature
生态型
Habit
食性
Feeding
营养级
Trophic level
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3
条纹斑竹鲨 Chiloscyllium plagiosum + 底层 4.0
尖头斜齿鲨 Scoliodon laticaudus + + 底层 3.8
中国团扇鳐 Platyrhina sinensis + 底层 3.5
赤魟 Dasyatis akajei + 底层 3.8
蜥海鲢 Elops saurus + + 中上 4.0
网纹裸胸鳝 Gymnothorax reticularis + + 底层 4.0
匀斑裸胸鳝 G. reevesii + 底层 4.0
尖吻蛇鳗 Ophichthus apicalis + + 底层 3.7
海鳗 Muraenesox cinereus + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 4.1
褐海鳗 M. bagio + 底层 4.0
尖尾鳗 Uroconger lepturus + + + + + + + + 底层 3.5
尼氏颌吻鳗 Gnathophis nystromi nystromi + 底层 5.1
食蟹豆齿鳗 Pisodonophis cancrivorus + + + + 底层 3.8
中华小沙丁鱼 Sardinella aurita + + + + 中上 3.4
斑鰶 Konosirus punctatus + + + + + + + + + 中上 2.9
康氏侧带小公鱼 Stolephorus commersonnii + 中上 3.1
赤鼻棱鳀 Thryssa kammalensis + + 中上 3.1
汉氏棱鳀 T. hamiltonii + + + + 中上 3.5
黄吻棱鳀 T. vitrirostris + + 中上 3.3
中华海鲶 Tachysurus sinensis + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.9
线纹鳗鲶 Plotosus lineatus + + 底层 3.5
龙头鱼 Harpadon nehereus + 中下 4.2
长体蛇鲻 Saurida elongata + + + + + + + 底层 4.4
棱鮻 Liza carinata + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 2.6
Mugil cephalus + + + + + + 底层 2.1
前鳞鲻 Moolgarda cunnesius + + + + + + + + 底层 2.4
莫氏海马 Hippocampus mohnikei + 底层 3.8
褐菖鮋 Sebastiscus marmoratus + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.6
日本鬼鮋 Inimicus japonicus + + + 底层 4.2
褐斑鲬 Platycephalus sp.1 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.6
横带棘线鲬 Grammoplites scaber + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.8
尾纹双边鱼 Ambassis urotaenia + + + + + + 中下 3.4
眶棘双边鱼 A. gymnocephalus + + + + 中上 3.9
花鲈 Lateolabrax maculatus + + + + + + + + + 中下 3.4
布氏石斑鱼 Epinephelus bleekeri + 中下 3.9
点带石斑鱼 E. coioides + + + + + 中下 3.9
棕点石斑鱼 E. fuscoguttatus + 中下 4.1
赤点石斑鱼 E. akaara + + + + 中下 4.0
横纹九棘鲈 Cephalopholis boenak + 底层 4.2
宽条鹰天竺鲷 Ostorhinchus fasciatus + + + + + + 中下 3.6
多鳞鱚 Sillago sihama + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.4
金带细鯵 Selaroides leptolepis + 中上 3.5
蓝圆鯵 Decapterus maruadsi + + + + 中上 3.4
大甲鯵 Megalaspis cordyla + + 中上 4.4
克氏副叶鲹 Alepes kleinii + + + 中上 3.5
短吻鰏 Leiognathus brevirostris + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 中上 3.0
黄斑鰏 Photopectoralis bindus + + + + + + 中上 2.5
鹿斑鰏 Secutor ruconius + + 上层 3.4
紫红笛鲷 Lutjanus argentimaculatus + 底层 3.6
勒氏笛鲷 L. russellii + + + + + + + 底层 4.3
短棘银鲈 Gerres limbatus + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.5
长棘银鲈 G. filamentosus + + 底层 3.3
横带髭鲷 Hapalogenys mucronatus + + 中下 4.1
裴氏金线鱼 Nemipterus peronii + 底层 3.7
六齿金线鱼 N. hexodon + + + + + 底层 3.9
黄缘金线鱼 N. thosaporni + + 底层 3.7
伏氏眶棘鲈 Scolopsis vosmeri + + + + 底层 3.5
平鲷 Rhabdosargus sarba + + + + + 底层 3.4
黄鳍棘鲷 Acanthopagrus latus + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + + 底层 3.2
黑棘鲷 A. schlegelii + + 底层 3.2
二长棘鲷 Parargyrops edita + + 底层 3.4
四指马鲅 Eleutheronema tetradactylum + + 中下 4.4
六指多指马鲅 Polydactylus sextarius + + + + + + + + + + + + + 中下 3.8
皮氏叫姑鱼 Johnius belangerii + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 中下 3.3
黄姑鱼 Nibea albiflora + + + 中下 3.3
勒氏枝鳔石首鱼 Dendrophysa russelii + + + + + + 底层 3.5
日本绯鲤 Upeneus japonicus + + + + 底层 3.6
圆口副绯鲤 Parupeneus cyclostomus + + + 底层 4.2
尖嘴蝴蝶鱼 Chaetodon modestus + + 中下 3.5
Terapon theraps + + + + 底层 3.5
四带牙鯻 Pelates quadrilineatus + + + 底层 3.5
尖突吻鯻 Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus + + + + + 底层 3.6
蓝猪齿鱼 Choerodon azurio + 底层 3.5
花鳍副海猪鱼 Parajulis poecilepterus + + + 中下 3.4
六带拟鲈 Parapercis sexfasciata + + + + + + 底层 3.4
日本鰧 Uranoscopus japonicus + 底层 4.0
锯脊塘鳢 Butis koilomatodon + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 4.0
纹缟鰕虎鱼 Tridentiger trigonocephalus + + + + + + + 底层 3.3
髭缟鰕虎鱼 T. barbatus + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.2
斑纹舌鰕虎鱼 Glossogobius olivaceus + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.7
犬牙细棘鰕虎鱼 Acentrogobius caninus + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.5
多须拟矛尾鰕虎鱼 Parachaeturichthys polynema + + + + + 底层 3.1
斑尾复鰕虎鱼 Synechogobius ommaturus + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.5
矛尾复鰕虎鱼 S. hasta + + 底层 3.0
触角沟鰕虎鱼 Oxyurichthys tentacularis + + + + + + + + 底层 4.2
长丝犁突鰕虎鱼 Myersina filifer + + + + 底层 3.4
须鳗鰕虎鱼 Taenioides cirratus + + 底层 3.9
鳗鰕虎鱼 T. anguillaris + + 底层 4.0
拉氏狼牙虾虎鱼 Odontamblyopus rubicundus + 底层 3.8
孔鰕虎鱼 Trypauchen vagina + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.5
大弹涂鱼 Boleophthalmus pectinirostris + + + + + + 底层 2.0
金钱鱼 Scatophagus argus + + + + + + + 底层 3.0
褐蓝子鱼 Siganus fuscescens + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 底层 2.3
斑条魣 Sphyraena jello + + + + 中下 4.5
高鳍带鱼 Trichiurus lepturus + + + + + + + + + + 中下 4.5
刺鲳 Psenopsis anomala + 中下 4.0
牙鲆 Paralichthys olivaceus + + 底层 4.4
少牙斑鲆 Pseudorhombus oligodon + + + + + + + 底层 4.2
木叶鲽 Pleuronichthys cornutus + + 底层 3.2
条鳎 Zebrias zebra + + + 底层 3.5
东方宽箬鳎 Brachirus orientalis + + + + + 底层 3.5
卵鳎 Solea ovata + + + + + + + + + 底层 3.5
短舌鳎 Cynoglossus abbreviatus + + 底层 3.5
斑头舌鳎 C. puncticeps + + + + 底层 3.3
宽体舌鳎 C. robustus + + 底层 3.5
巨鳞舌鳎 C. macrolepidotus + + + + + 底层 3.5
中华单角鲀 Monacanthus chinensis + + + + + + 底层 2.6
暗色多纪鲀 Takifugu obscurus + 底层 3.4
横纹多纪鲀 T. oblongus + + + 底层 3.2
铅点多纪鲀 T. alboplumbeus + + 底层 3.3
黄鳍多纪鲀 T. xanthopterus + + 底层 3.4
凹鼻鲀 Chelonodon patoca + 底层 3.1
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