Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 649-657.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13257

Special Issue: Marine Biodiversity Special Feature

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Seasonal change of the community of large-sized tintinnids (Ciliophora, Tintinnida) in Laizhou Bay

Xue Chen1, 3, Wuchang Zhang1, *(), Qiang Wu2, Qingshan Luan2, Tian Xiao1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
    2 Laboratory of Stock Assessment and Ecosystem, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2013-12-11 Accepted:2014-04-17 Online:2014-10-09
  • Zhang Wuchang

The abundance and seasonal change of large-sized tintinnids were studied in Laizhou Bay. Large-sized tintinnids were collected by vertical towing using a shallow sea type III plankton net (open area 0.1 m2, mesh size 76 μm) during 9 cruises between May and November of 2011 and from March to April, 2012. The samples were fixed in formalin solution to a final concentration of 5% and counted using an inverted microscope in the laboratory. We sampled 8 stations to avoid fluctuations over a short time period. The purpose of this study was to characterize seasonal change of the large-sized tintinnid community. Maximum tintinnid species richness was 19 in August and minimum was 5 in May. Tintinnid abundance ranged from 0 ind./L to 318 ind./L. Average abundance at all stations was highest (63 ind./L) in July and lowest (2 ind./L) in March, and there was a secondary peak of 48 ind./L in May. The abundance of Codonellopsis mobilis and Tintinnopsis chinglanensis were more than 50 ind./L. Agglutinated species occurred from March to November, while the hyaline species only occurred from June to September when the temperature was > 15°C. Codonellopsis mobilis occurred from March to November. The number of dominant species ranged from 1 in May, to 8 in August. Codonellopsis mobilis was a dominant species during all time periods and this one species significantly influenced the pattern of total ciliate abundance. Using the average abundance data of 8 stations, two distinct cluster groups were observed (30% similarity): cluster I (July to September) and cluster II (March to June, October to November). The cluster results showed that there was a seasonal change of the large-sized tintinnid community. Average abundance and species richness were not significantly correlated with temperature and salinity.

Key words: Tintinnid, community, seasonal change, Laizhou Bay

Fig. 1

Locations of the sampling stations in Laizhou Bay"

Table 1

Species list of tintinnids in Laizhou Bay from March to November"

Chinese name
Latin name
Amax Mmax
透明壳种类 Hyaline species
尖底类瓮虫 Amphorellopsis acuta 2.81 8
卢氏真铃虫 Eutintinnus lusus-undae 2.53 7
巴拿马网纹虫 Favella panamensis 4.21 6
黏着壳种类 Agglutinated species
鲁西塔尼亚类铃虫 Codonellopsis lusitanica 1.04 8
运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 316.72 5
诺氏薄铃虫 Leprotintinnus nordqvisti 0.42 7
简单薄铃虫 L. simplex 7.67 7
白领细壳虫 Stenosemella nivalis 16.93 7
巴西拟铃虫 Tintinnopsis brasiliensis 1.04 3
布氏拟铃虫 T. butschlii 1.18 7
清兰拟铃虫 T. chinglanensis 65.85 7
有角拟铃虫 T. corniger 3.87 7
指状拟铃虫 T. digita 9.44 8
直颈拟铃虫 T. directa 0.53 7
半旋拟铃虫 T. hemispiralis 3.85 11
日本拟铃虫 T. japonica 14.21 4
卡拉直克拟铃虫 T. karajacensis 0.20 3
罗氏拟铃虫 T. lohmanni 6.15 7
梅氏拟铃虫 T. mayeri 0.11 4
根状拟铃虫 T. radix 29.14 7
圆锥拟铃虫 T. rapa 0.59 3
斯氏拟铃虫 T. schotti 12.43 9
妥肯丁拟铃虫 T. tocantinensis 13.38 8
未定种1 Tintinnopsis sp.1 4.84 5
未定种2 Tintinnopsis sp.2 0.39 6
未定种3 Tintinnopsis sp.3 0.80 8

Fig. 2

Variation of species richness of tintinnids in Laizhou Bay from March to November (a), and the relationship between temperature and species richness (b)."

Fig. 3

Temporal variation of temperature (°C), occurrence (a) and temperature range (b) of each tintinnid species in Laizhou Bay from March to November"

Fig. 4

Temporal variation of temperature (°C), tintinnid average abundance (ind./ L) in Laizhou Bay from March to November."

Fig. 5

Temporal variation of temperature (°C) and tintinnid abundance (ind./L) of 2 species in Laizhou Bay from March to November. A, Codonellopsis mobilis; B, Tintinnopsis digita."

Table 2

The dominant species of tintinnids and their dominance in Laizhou Bay from March to November"

Dominant species
Dominant species
3月 日本拟铃虫 T. japonica 0.293 8月 白领细壳虫 S. nivalis 0.179
半旋拟铃虫 T. hemispiralis 0.100 清兰拟铃虫 T. chinglanensis 0.129
运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.065 妥肯丁拟铃虫 T. tocantinensis 0.095
指状拟铃虫 T. digita 0.065 指状拟铃虫 T. digita 0.077
巴西拟铃虫 T. brasiliensis 0.065 运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.045
4月 日本拟铃虫 T. japonica 0.637 日本拟铃虫 T. japonica 0.044
运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.288 罗氏拟铃虫 T. lohmanni 0.040
5月 运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.979 根状拟铃虫 T. radix 0.031
9月 斯氏拟铃虫 T. schotti 0.220
6月 运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.581 有角拟铃虫 T. corniger 0.042
巴拿马网纹虫 F. panamensis 0.189 半旋拟铃虫 T. hemispiralis 0.033
Tintinnopsis sp.1 0.049 指状拟铃虫 T. digita 0.032
7月 运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.305 根状拟铃虫 T. radix 0.024
根状拟铃虫 T. radix 0.157 10月 运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.496
清兰拟铃虫 T.chinglanensis 0.086 白领细壳虫 S. nivalis 0.349
白领细壳虫 S. nivalis 0.075 11月 白领细壳虫 S. nivalis 0.445
妥肯丁拟铃虫 T. tocantinensis 0.067 半旋拟铃虫 T. hemispiralis 0.267
简单薄铃虫 L. simplex 0.033 运动类铃虫 C. mobilis 0.215
日本拟铃虫 T. japonica 0.030

Table 3

Species richness, evenness index and diversity indices of tintinnids in Laizhou Bay from March to November"

Species richness
10 7 5 11 18 19 12 6 10
Evenness index (J)
0.78±0.15 0.62±0.18 0.40±0.30 0.59±0.19 0.57±0.13 0.72±0.08 0.76±0.26 0.55±0.18 0.69±0.11
Diversity index (H')
1.71±0.60 1.00±0.23 0.42±0.29 1.33±0.34 2.06±0.50 2.38±0.32 1.45±0.75 1.04±0.46 1.71±0.36

Fig. 6

Cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrix of average species abundance (ind./L) of 8 stations in Laizhou Bay from March to November"

Fig. S1

Temporal variation of temperature (°C) and salinity in Laizhou Bay from March to November. Data are averages of the 8 stations with standard deviation."

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