Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 296-305.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10207

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Priority plant communities for conservation in Northwest Yunnan

Yanni Zhang, Zhiming Zhang, Yupeng Geng, Xiaokun Ou*(), Shengjing Peng, Wenli Wang, Xin Feng, Jingwen Guo   

  1. Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
  • Received:2012-10-31 Accepted:2013-03-21 Online:2013-06-05
  • Ou Xiaokun E-mail:xkou@ynu.edu.cn

Because of limited resources, it is very important for biodiversity conservation to make accurate assessments of biodiversity prior to setting out measures for protecting regions and communities. To more effectively manage and protect forest resources in Northwest Yunnan, we evaluated the priority plant community types for conservation by mainly considering the function of plant communities in maintaining habitat and biodiversity. Recognizing the principles of good science, hierarchy and practicability, we established an evaluation indicator system consisting of six indicators: species diversity, number of rare and endangered plant species, protection level of plant species, number of endemic plant species, and rarity and endemism of community type. We selected 61 formations belonging to 13 vegetation subtypes in Northwest Yunnan for analysis. Assessment criteria followed a general ranking assignment methodology, and weights assigned to individual indicators were determined using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and expert consultation. GIS technology was used as an aid to integrate evaluation. The results yielded conservation values of communities as follows: (1) at the association level: 4 associations were at first category, 31 second category, 23 third category, and three general category; (2) at the vegetation subtype level: one was at first category, six second category, six third category. The distribution of priority vegetation subtypes for conservation were: (1) first category: a small area distributed in Gaoligong Mountains; (2) second category: mainly distributed in high altitude mountains in the northwest, and also in some alpine areas in the southeast of the study area; (3) third category: distributed at low altitude in the southeast of the study area and in valleys of the Dulong River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River.

Key words: priority plant community for conservation, biodiversity conservation, evaluation indicator system, assessment criteria, Northwest Yunnan

Fig. 1

The vegetation map of Northwest Yunnan according to the TM image"

Table 1

The evaluation indicator system of evaluating priority of plant communities for conservation"

目标层
Evaluation target (A)
准则层
Criterion (B)
指标层
Indicators (C)
植物群落维持栖息地与生物多样性的功能
Function of plant communities in maintaining habitat and biodiversity (A)
多样性
Diversity (B1)
植物物种多样性 Species diversity (C1)
稀有性 珍稀濒危植物物种数 No. of rare and endangered plant species (C2)
Rarity (B2) 植物物种保护级别 Protection level of plant species (C3)
群落稀有性 Rarity of the community type (C4)
特有性 特有植物物种种数 No. of endemic plant species (C5)
Endemism (B3) 群落特有性 Endemism of community type (C6)

Table 2

The weights of evaluation indicators"

准则层
Criterion
(B)
准则层权重
Weights of criterions
指标层
Indicators
(C)
指标层权重
Weights of indicators
各指标权重
Weights
(W)
多样性
Diversity (B1)
0.0964 物种多样性 Species diversity (C1) 1.0000 0.0964
稀有性 0.2842 珍稀濒危植物物种数 No. of rare and endangered plant species (C2) 0.0778 0.0221
Rarity (B2) 植物物种保护级别 Protection level of plant species (C3) 0.2344 0.0666
群落稀有性 Rarity of the community type (C4) 0.6878 0.1955
特有性 0.6194 特有植物物种种数 No. of endemic plant species (C5) 0.2000 0.1239
Endemism (B3) 群落特有性 Endemism of community type (C6) 0.8000 0.4955

Table 3

The assessment criteria for the evaluation indicators"

指标
Indicators
赋值 Score
5 4 3 2 1
物种多样性
Species diversity (C1)
丰富度≥17
Richness≥17
9≤丰富度<17
9≤Richness<17
1≤丰富度<9
1≤Richness<9
0.1≤丰富度<1
0.1≤Richness<1
丰富度<0.1
Richness<0.1
珍稀濒危植物物种种数
No. of rare and endangered plant species (C2)
有濒危种且渐危种≥5种渐危种
With endangered plants and ≥5 vulnerable plant species
有濒危种且有1-4种渐危种, 或者没有濒危种但渐危种≥5种
With endangered plants and 1-4 vulnerable plant species; No endangered plants but ≥5 vulnerable plant species
有1-4种渐危种且稀有种≥5种
1-4 vulnerable plant species and ≥5 rare plant species
有1-4种稀有种分布
1-4 rare plant species
没有珍稀濒危物种分布
No rare or endangered plant species
植物物种保护级别
Protection level of plant species (C3)
有≥8种国家级保护植物种分布且含一级保护种的群落
≥8 national protected plant species with the first nationally protected plants
有≥8种国家级保护植物种分布但不含一级保护种的群落
≥8 national protected plant species without the first nationally protected plant species
有4-7种国家级保护植物种分布的群落
4-7 national protected plant species
有1-3种国家级保护植物种分布或只有多种省级保护植物种分布的群落
1-3 national protected plant species; Many provincial protected plant species
没有保护植物分布的群落
No protective species
群落稀有性
Rarity of the community type (C4)
群落类型仅少量出现在滇西北某一特定区域
A small amount of distribution in a particular area of northwest Yunnan
群落类型较广泛分布在滇西北某一区域
Wide distribution in an area of northwest Yunnan
群落类型仅分布在滇西北某些区域
Distribution in some areas of northwest Yunnan
群落类型分布在滇西北各地或在云南省内其他地区少量分布
Distribution in northwest Yunnan∕A small amount of distribution in some areas of Yunnan
群落类型广泛分布在云南省境内
Widely distributed in Yunnan
特有植物物种种数
No. of endemic plant species (C5)
40种以上特有种分布且有滇西北特有种; 45种以上特有种分布但没有滇西北特有种
≥40 endemic plant species with northwest Yunnan unique plants∕≥45 endemic plant species without northwest Yunnan unique plants
25-39种特有种分布且有滇西北特有种; 30-44种特有种分布但没有滇西北特有种
25-39 endemic plant species with northwest Yunnan unique plants∕30-44 endemic plant species without northwest Yunnan unique plants
15-24种特有种分布且有滇西北特有种; 20-29种特有种分布但没有滇西北特有种
15-24 endemic plant species with northwest Yunnan unique plants∕20-29 endemic plant species without northwest Yunnan unique plant species
8-14种特有种分布且有滇西北特有种; 10-19种特有种分布但没有滇西北特有种
8-14 endemic plant species with northwest Yunnan unique plants∕10-19 endemic plant species without northwest Yunnan unique plants
少于8种特有种且有滇西北特有种分布; 少于10种特有种分布但没有滇西北特有种
<8 endemic plant species with northwest Yunnan unique plants∕<10 endemic plant species without northwest Yunnan unique plants
群落特有性(C6)
Endemism of community type
滇西北特有
Unique distribution in northwest Yunnan
横断山区特有
Unique distribution in Hengduan Mountain region
中国特有
Unique distribution in China
普遍存在
Widespread
入侵种为优势种
Invasive species as dominant species

Fig. 2

The distribution of priority vegetation subtypes for conservation in Northwest Yunnan"

Appendix I

Priority of the vegetation subtypes in Northwest Yunnan based on integrated evaluation"

植被亚型
Vegetation subtypes
指标 Indicators (C)
物种多样性
Species diversity
珍稀濒危植物物种种数
No. of rare and endangered plant species
植物物种保护级别
Protection level of plant species
群落稀有性
Rarity of the community type
特有植物物种种数
No. of endemic plant species
群落特有性
Endemism of community type
综合评价得分
Score of integrated evaluation (S)
保护价值排序
Rank of conservation value
保护级别
Protection category
季风常绿阔叶林
Monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest
2.000 4.000 5.000 5.000 2.000 5.000 4.317 1 一级
First category
高山、亚高山草甸
Alpine and subalpine meadow
3.100 3.700 2.000 3.800 2.000 4.000 3.487 2 二级
Second category
寒温性针叶林
Cold temperate coniferous forest
2.000 3.000 3.000 3.170 2.330 4.170 3.432 3 二级
Second category
温凉性针叶林
Cool temperate coniferous forest
2.000 3.000 3.000 2.500 3.500 4.000 3.363 4 二级
Second category
亚高山沼泽草甸
Subalpine swamping meadow
2.000 4.000 2.000 3.750 1.250 4.000 3.284 5 二级
Second category
中山湿性常绿阔叶林
Middle-mountain evergreen broad leaved forest
2.000 4.000 5.000 3.000 2.800 3.400 3.232 6 二级
Second category
寒温性灌丛
Cold temperate shrub
2.000 3.000 2.000 3.500 1.938 3.563 3.082 7 二级
Second category
干热河谷硬叶常绿阔叶林
Dry-hot valley sclerophyllous evergreen broad-leaved forest
2.000 1.000 1.000 3.000 5.000 3.000 2.974 8 三级
Third category
落叶阔叶林
Deciduous broad-leaved forest
1.750 4.000 4.000 2.500 2.250 3.250 2.901 9 三级
Third category
暖温性灌草丛及灌丛
Warm temperate shrub
3.000 2.000 2.000 2.330 2.670 3.000 2.740 10 三级
Third category
干热河谷灌丛
Dry-hot valley shrub
2.000 2.000 2.000 3.000 2.000 3.000 2.691 11 三级
Third category
寒温性山地硬叶常绿阔叶林
Cold temperate mountain sclerophyllous evergreen broad-leaved forest
2.000 1.000 1.000 2.330 3.330 3.000 2.637 12 三级
Third category
暖温性针叶林
Warm temperate coniferous forest
1.600 1.000 1.000 2.400 2.600 3.000 2.521 13 三级
Third category

Appendix II

The integrated evaluation result of associations in Northwest Yunnan"

群落
Communities
指标 Indicators (C)
物种多样性
Species diversity
珍稀濒危植物物种种数
No. of rare and endangered plant species
植物物种保护级别
Protection level of plant species
群落稀有性
Rarity of the community type
特有植物物种种数
No. of endemic plant species
群落特有性
Endemism of community type
综合评价得分Score of integrated evaluation
(S)
保护价值排序
Rank of conservation value
保护级别
Protection category
鞘茎嵩草-玉龙嵩草群落
Kobresia tunicate-K. stiebritziana Comm.
5 4 2 4 3 5 4.335 1 一级
First category
怒江藤黄-润楠林
Garcinia nujiangensis-Machilus spp. Comm.
2 4 5 5 2 5 4.317 2 一级
First category
大头蓟-绵毛橐吾-变色紫云菜群落
Cirsium lidjiangense-Ligularia vellerea-Strobilanthes versicolor Comm.
4 4 2 4 3 5 4.238 3 一级
First category
紫叶垂头菊-黄毛菊-梭砂贝母群落
Cremanthodium sp.-Soroseris umbrella-Fritillaria delavayi Comm.
3 3 2 4 3 5 4.120 4 一级
First category
滇山杨-大白杜鹃群落
Populus bonatii-Rhododendron decorum Comm.
2 4 4 3 3 5 3.983 5 二级
Second category
苍山冷杉-杜鹃群落
Abies delavayi-Rhododendron spp. Comm.
2 3 3 4 2 5 3.966 6 二级
Second category
矮地榆-深紫糙苏-华扁穗草群落
Sanguisorba filiformis-Blysmus sinocompressus-Phlomis atropurpurea Comm.
2 4 2 4 2 5 3.922 7 二级
Second category
密枝杜鹃-乳黄杜鹃群落
Rhododendron fastigiatum-R. lacteum Comm.
2 3 2 4 2 5 3.900 8 二级
Second category
多变石栎-元江栲群落
Lithocarpus variolosa-Castanopsis orthacantha Comm.
2 4 5 4 3 4 3.750 9 二级
Second category
箭叶锦鸡儿-乌饭叶柳-小金露梅群落
Caragana jubata-Salix vaccinioides-Dasiphora arbuscula Comm.
2 3 2 4 4 4 3.652 10 二级
Second category
华扁穗草-深紫糙苏群落
Blysmus sinocompressus-Phlomis atropurpurea Comm.
2 4 2 3 1 5 3.602 11 二级
Second category
金鳞小叶杜鹃-高山桦群落
Rhododendron sp.-Betula delavayi Comm.
2 3 2 4 3 4 3.528 12 二级
Second category
高山松群落
Pinus densata Comm.
2 3 3 3 4 4 3.523 13 二级
Second category
大果红杉-箭竹群落
Larix potaninii var. macrocarpa-Sinarundinaria nitida Comm.
2 3 3 3 4 4 3.523 13 二级
Second category
糙皮桦-长苞冷杉群落
Betula utilis var. utilis-Abies georgei Comm.
2 4 4 3 3 4 3.488 15 二级
Second category
长苞冷杉-苔草群落
Abies georgei-Carex sp. Comm.
2 3 3 4 2 4 3.471 16 二级
Second category
乌饭叶柳群落
Salix vaccinioides Comm.
2 3 2 4 2 4 3.404 17 二级
Second category
高山毛叶柳-腺房杜鹃群落
Salix sp.-Rhododendron adenogynum Comm.
2 3 2 4 2 4 3.404 17 二级
Second category
紫叶垂头菊-矮泽芹群落
Cremanthodium sp.-Chamaesium sp. Comm.
3 3 2 4 1 4 3.377 19 二级
Second category
云南羊茅-羊茅群落
Festuca Vierhapperi-F. ovina Comm.
5 4 2 4 3 3 3.344 20 二级
Second category
毛喉杜鹃-腺房杜鹃-乌饭叶柳群落
Rhododendron cephalanthum-R. adenogynum-Salix vaccinioides Comm.
2 3 2 3 3 4 3.333 21 二级
Second category
包斗栎-滇八角-箭竹群落
Lithocarpus craibianus-Illicium yunnanense-Sinarundinaria sp. Comm.
2 4 5 3 5 3 3.307 22 二级
Second category
委陵菜-狭叶人参果-宽叶嵩草群落
Potentilla dumosa-P. tenophylla-Kobresia sp. Comm.
2 4 2 4 1 4 3.302 23 二级
Second category
狭叶人参果-滇黄芩-线叶嵩草群落
Potentilla stenophylla-Kobresia sp.-Veratrilla baillonii Comm.
2 4 2 4 1 4 3.302 23 二级
Second category
矮地榆-嵩草群落
Sanguisorba filiformis-Kobresia sp. Comm.
2 4 2 4 1 4 3.302 23 二级
Second category
丽江云杉-箭竹群落
Picea likiangensis-Sinarundinaria sp. Comm.
2 3 3 3 2 4 3.275 26 二级
Second category
长苞冷杉-杜鹃群落
Abies georgei-Rhododendron spp. Comm.
2 3 3 3 2 4 3.2752 26 二级
Second category
青冈栎-多变石栎-银木荷群落
Cyclobalanopsis glauca-Lithocarpus variolosa-Schima argentea Comm.
2 4 5 2 2 4 3.235 28 二级
Second category
西南鸢尾-苍山橐吾群落
Iris bulleyana-Ligularia tsangshangensis Comm.
2 4 2 3 2 4 3.231 29 二级
Second category
滇黄芩-西南鸢尾群落
Veratrilla baillonii-Iris bulleyana Comm.
2 4 2 3 2 4 3.231 29 二级
Second category
灰背杜鹃-峨眉蔷薇群落
Rhododendron hippophaeoides-Rosa omeiensis Comm.
2 3 2 3 2 4 3.209 31 二级
Second category
云南铁杉-箭竹群落
Tsuga dumosa-Sinarundinaria nitida Comm.
2 3 3 2 3 4 3.204 32 二级
Second category
矮高山栎-矮生胡枝子群落
Quercus monimotricha-Lespedeza forrestii Comm.
2 3 2 2 3 4 3.137 33 二级
Second category
川滇杜鹃-银露梅群落
Rhododendron traillianum-Dasiphora glabra var. rhodocalyx Comm.
2 3 2 3 1 4 3.085 34 二级
Second category
长苞冷杉-箭竹群落
Abies georgei-Sinarundinaria nitida Comm.
2 3 3 2 2 4 3.078 35 二级
Second category
铁橡栎-清香木群落
Quercus cocciferoides-Pistacia weinmannifolia Comm.
2 1 1 3 5 3 2.974 36 三级
Third category
青冈栎-硬斗石栎-红淡群落
Cyclobalanopsis glauca-Lithocarpus hancei-Adinandra sp. Comm.
2 4 5 3 2 3 2.935 37 三级
Third category
秃杉-西藏山茉莉-青冈栎群落
Taiwania flousiana-Huodendron tibeticum-Cyclobalanopsis glauca Comm.
2 4 5 3 2 3 2.935 37 三级
Third category
云南锦鸡儿-青刺尖群落
Caragana franchetiana-Prinsepia utilis Comm.
2 3 2 4 2 3 2.909 39 三级
Third category
短柱杜鹃-糙线毛杜鹃-紫岩梅群落
Rhododendron brevistylum-Rhododendron sp.-Diapensia purpurea Comm.
2 3 2 4 2 3 2.909 39 三级
Third category
云南松-穗序野古草-西南委陵菜群落
Pinus yunnanensis-Arundinella chenii-Potentilla fulgens Comm.
5 2 2 3 1 3 2.856 41 三级
Third category
川滇高山栎群落
Quercus aquifolioides Comm.
2 1 1 3 4 3 2.850 42 三级
Third category
云南松-帽斗栎-黄背栎群落
Pinus yunnanensis-Quercus guayavaefolia-Q. pannosa Comm.
2 1 1 3 4 3 2.850 42 三级
Third category
滇北蔷薇-马鞍叶-光叶高山栎群落
Rosa mairei-Bauhinia faberi-Quercus rehderiana Comm.
2 2 2 3 3 3 2.815 44 三级
Third category
香柏群落
Sabina pingii var. wilsonii Comm.
2 3 2 4 1 3 2.785 45 三级
Third category
沙棘-细圆齿火棘群落
Hippophae rhamnoides-Pyracantha crenulata Comm.
2 3 2 4 1 3 2.785 45 三级
Third category
水柏枝-马桑群落
Myricaria germanica-Coriaria nepalensis Comm.
2 3 2 4 1 3 2.785 45 三级
Third category
白刺花-小马鞍叶群落
Sophora viciifolia-Bauhinia faberi var. microphylla Comm.
2 2 2 3 2 3 2.691 48 三级
Third category
帽斗栎-管花木樨群落
Quercus guyavaefolia-Osmanthus delavayi Comm.
2 1 1 2 4 3 2.655 49 三级
Third category
毛喉杜鹃-副萼柳群落
Rhododendron cephalanthum-Salix calyculata Comm.
2 3 2 3 1 3 2.589 50 三级
Third category
华山松-滇中画眉草-穗序野古草群落
Pinus armandi-Eragrostis mairei-Arundinella chenii Comm.
2 2 2 1 4 3 2.548 51 三级
Third category
黄背栎-红毛花楸群落
Quercus pannosa-Sorbus rufopilosa Comm.
2 1 1 2 2 3 2.407 52 三级
Third category
云南松-旱冬瓜-槲栎群落
Pinus yunnanensis-Alnus nepalensis-Quercus aliena Comm.
2 1 1 2 2 3 2.407 52 三级
Third category
绿叶垂头菊-山葶苈群落
Cremanthodium hookeri-Draba oreodoxa Comm.
3 3 2 4 1 2 2.386 54 三级
Third category
槭树-红桦-箭竹群落
Acer spp.-Betula albosinensis-Sinarundinaria sp. Comm.
2 4 4 3 2 2 2.373 55 三级
Third category
华扁穗草-锡金报春群落
Blysmus sinocompressus-Primula sikkimenensis Comm.
2 4 2 4 1 2 2.311 56 三级
Third category
华山松-铁仔-杜鹃群落
Pinus armandi-Myrsine Africana-Rhododendron spp. Comm.
1 1 1 1 3 3 2.239 57 三级
Third category
云南松-灰背栎群落
Pinus yunnanensis-Quercus senescens Comm.
1 1 1 2 1 3 2.187 58 三级
Third category
高山柏-高山嵩草群落
Sabina squamata-Kobresia pygmaea Comm.
2 3 2 2 1 2 1.898 59 一般
General category
旱冬瓜-蕨菜群落
Alnus nepalensis-Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum Comm.
1 4 4 1 1 2 1.762 60 一般
General category
华山松-小檗群落
Pinus armandi-Berberis sp. Comm.
2 1 1 4 3 3 1.487 61 一般
General category
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