Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 993-1001.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019135

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Species diversity and seasonal fluctuation of entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota in Taibaoshan Forest Park in western Yunnan

Zihong Chen1, Yuanbing Wang2, Yongdong Dai2, Kai Chen1, Ling Xu1, *(), Qingcheng He3, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Biological Resources of Gaoligong Mountains, Baoshan University, Baoshan, Yunnan 678000
    2 Yunnan Herbal Laboratory, Institute of Herbal Biotic Resources, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    3 Editorial Office of Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2019-04-18 Accepted:2019-06-21 Online:2019-09-25
  • Xu Ling,He Qingcheng E-mail:xuling09083@163.com;358779197@qq.com

Yunnan Province and the Tibetan Plateau are home to a large diversity of entomogenous fungi. We selected Taibaoshan Forest Park of Baoshan City, in Yunnan to investigate the species diversity of entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota and their seasonal fluctuations throughout the year. We collected samples of soil and infected insects monthly in 2016, and the entomogenous fungal strains were isolated before multigene (nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1, and RPB2) phylogenetic analyses were used to identify species. Finally we quanitifed the fluctuations throughout the year in alpha diversity. Entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota in Taibaoshan Forest Park were found through the entire year and we identified a total of 395 fungal strains, including 24 species from nine genera of three families. Cordyceps (199 strains of six species) and Beauveria (80 strains of five species) were the dominant genera. Akanthomyces sp., Cordyceps tenuipes, C. cicadae, C. fumosorosea and Beauveria bassiana were the dominant species. The detection rate of strains was the highest (85 strains, 21.4% of the total) in July, But the species richness (15 species) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index (2.35) were the highest in August. Among the five most dominant species, only C. cicadae was much affected by seasonal changes: occurring from May to September and being most prosperous in July (35 strains, 41.2% of the total strains in July). The other four species were detected through most of the year (11 or 12 months), indicating a constant abundance of entomogenous Ascomycota were abundant in Taibaoshan Forest Park, regardless of seasonal changes.

Key words: Taibaoshan Forest Park, entomogenous fungi, species diversity, dominant genera and species, population dynamics

Table 1

Entomogenous fungi in Taibaoshan Forest Park"


Family

Genus
物种
Species
菌株数
Strain number
重要值
Importance value
虫草科
Cordycipitaceae
刺束梗孢属 Akanthomyces Akanthomyces sp. 73 0.185
白僵菌属 Beauveria 球孢白僵菌 B. bassiana 52 0.132
假球孢白僵菌 B. pseudobassiana 20 0.051
墨脱白僵菌 B. medogensis 4 0.010
亚洲白僵菌 B. asiatica 2 0.005
布氏白僵菌 B. brongniartii 2 0.005
虫草属 Cordyceps 蝉花 C. cicadae 56 0.142
高雄山虫草 C. tenuipes 56 0.142
玫烟色虫草 C. fumosorosea 54 0.137
环链虫草 C. cateniannulata 28 0.071
斜链虫草 C. cateniobliqua 4 0.010
双梭孢虫草 C. bifusispora 1 0.003
球束梗孢属 Gibellula 丽球束梗孢 G. pulchra 18 0.046
蜡蚧菌属 Lecanicillium 刀孢蜡蚧菌 L. psalliotae 3 0.008
线虫草科
Ophiocordycipitaceae
线虫草属 Ophiocordyceps
黄棒线虫草 O. clavata 1 0.003
红蚁线虫草 O. myrmicarum 1 0.003
蚁生线虫草 O. myrmecophila 1 0.003
多头霉属 Polycephalomyces 枝多头霉 P. ramosus 2 0.005
枝垫多头霉 P. ramosopulvinatus 1 0.003
紫孢菌属 Purpureocillium 淡紫紫孢菌 P. lilacinum 4 0.010
蜘蛛紫孢菌 P. atypicola 1 0.003
麦角菌科
Clavicipitaceae
绿僵菌属 Metarhizium 金龟子绿僵菌 M. anisopliae 6 0.015
莱氏绿僵菌 M. rileyi 3 0.013
鳞腮绿僵菌 M. lepidiotae 2 0.008

Fig. 1

Phylogenetic tree of entomogenous fungi in Taibaoshan Forest Park based on multigene (nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1 and RPB2) dataset. The genetic sequences of entomogenous fungi in Taibaoshan Forest Park are shown in bold type."

Fig. 2

Percentage of strain numbers of entomogenous fungal species in Taibaoshan Forest Park"

Table 2

Monthly fluctuation of entomogenous fungi in Taibaoshan Forest Park"

月份
Month
菌株数
No. of strains
物种丰富度Species richness 优势度指数
Dominance index
均匀度
Evenness
Shannon-Wiener index 空气温度
Air temperature (℃)
空气湿度
Air humidity (%)
1 16 4 0.33 0.87 1.21 10 ± 2.1 44 ± 3.2
2 20 6 0.26 0.86 1.54 14 ± 2.8 43 ± 3.6
3 13 6 0.29 0.83 1.48 17 ± 2.3 40 ± 3.1
4 11 5 0.26 0.91 1.47 21 ± 2.2 46 ± 2.6
5 20 7 0.18 0.94 1.83 26 ± 2.3 68 ± 4.3
6 59 11 0.14 0.89 2.14 28 ± 1.1 83 ± 3.0
7 85 10 0.21 0.82 1.89 28 ± 1.5 75 ± 5.9
8 59 15 0.11 0.87 2.35 29 ± 0.8 57 ± 5.1
9 40 8 0.23 0.81 1.69 25 ± 1.1 63 ± 4.0
10 28 8 0.20 0.87 1.80 24 ± 1.2 60 ± 4.2
11 30 7 0.22 0.88 1.71 18 ± 1.7 51 ± 1.5
12 14 6 0.29 0.82 1.48 14 ± 1.6 47 ± 2.3

Fig. 3

Monthly dynamics for dominant species of entomogenous fungi in Taibaoshan Forest Park"

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