Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 778-786.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019132

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Species diversity and global distribution of Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) using online databases

Jiao Meng1, Li Jing1, *(), Zhao Huifeng1, Wu Chunsheng2, Zhang Aibing1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048
    2 Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2019-04-16 Accepted:2019-06-11 Online:2019-08-21
  • Li Jing,Zhang Aibing;

Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) is a globally distributed insect and is classified as a pest destroying economic and roadway trees. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the species diversity and global distribution of Limacodidae and to explore the reasons for uneven distribution patterns, which could provide a scientific basis for biodiversity conservation and pest control. Detailed information was downloaded and analyzed from the Barcode of Life Data System V4 (BOLD V4) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), as well as other local databases of Lepidoptera and related research. A total of 61,947 global distributional records of Limacodidae with explicit coordinates were gathered, including 187 genera and 637 species. At the biogeographic realm scale, 72 genera were recorded in Indomalayan realm, 31 in the Palearctic realm, 27 in the Australasian realm, 27 in the Neotropical realm, 22 in the Afrotropical realm, and 19 in the Nearctic realm. At the national scale, China has the highest species richness (123 species), followed by Vietnam (116 species), Costa Rica (75 species), and then Australia (69 species). The higher species diversity and richness of the Limacodidae in mid-low latitudinal regions may be related to stable climatic history and a vast number of host plants in these regions.

Key words: Limacodidae, species diversity, zoogeographic realms, global distribution

Fig. 1

Global zoogeographical realms distribution of Limacodidae. Figures represent the number of genus."

Table 1

Existing genera of Limacodidae in global zoogeographical realms"

Zoogeographical realms
Existing genera
Allothosea, Altha, Althonarosa, Aphendala, Arabessa, Atosia, Austrapoda, Avatara, Barabashka, Barisania, Belippa, Birthamula, Birthosea, Caelestomorpha, Caissa, Calauta, Cania, Ceratonema, Chalcocelis, Chalcoscelides, Cheromettia, Chibaraga, Darna, Demonarosa, Dudgeonea, Euphlyctinides, Flavinarosa, Griseothosea, Hampsonella, Heringarosa, Hindothosea, Hyphorma, Hyphormides, Iraga, Kitanola, Limacocera, Mahanta, Matsumurides, Miresa, Monema, Mummu, Nagodopsis, Narosa, Narosoideus, Neothosea, Nephelimorpha, Nirmides, Oxyplax, Parasa, Phlossa, Phocoderma, Polyphena, Praesetora, Prapata, Pretas, Pseudaltha, Pseudidonauton, Pseudocaissa, Pseudonirmides, Quasinarosa, Quasithosea, Rhamnosa, Sansarea, Scopelodes, Setora, Setothosea, Squamosa, Susica, Tanvia, Tennya, Thosea, Vipaka 72
Acraephnes, Altha, Aphendala, Apoda, Austrapoda, Belippa, Birthosea, Caissa, Ceratonema, Chalcoscelides, Chibaraga, Darna, Heterogenea, Iraga, Iragoides, Isa, Mahanta, Mediocampa, Microcampa, Microleon, Monema, Narosa, Narosoideus, Neothosea, Parasa, Phlossa, Phrixolepia, Rhamnosa, Scopelodes, Setora, Thosea 31
Anaxidia, Anepopsia, Apodecta, Birthamoides, Calcarifera, Chalcocelis, Comana, Comanula, Doratifera, Ecnomoctena, Elassoptila, Eloasa, Hedraea, Hydroclada, Hypselolopha, Lamprolepida, Limacochara, Mambara, Mecytha, Parasoidea, Pinzulenza, Praesusica, Pseudanapaea, Pygmaeomorpha, Scopelodes, Squamosa, Thosea 27
Acharia, Alarodia, Blazia, Dichromapteryx, Epiperola, Euclea, Euphobetron, Euprosterna, Heuretes, Isa, Isochaetes, Leucophobetron, Miresa, Monoleuca, Narosopsis, Natada, Parasa, Perola, Phobetron, Prolimacodes, Pseudovipsania, Semyra, Talima, Tanadema, Venadicodia, Vipsania, Vipsophobetron 27
Afrobirthama, Ambaliha, Andaingo, Birthama, Chrysopoloma, Coenobasis, Cosuma, Crothaema, Ctenolita, Delorhachis, Hadraphe, Halseyia, Hamartia, Latoia, Micraphe, Pantoctenia, Parapluda, Scotinochroa, Strigivenifera, Teinorhynca, Thliptocnemis, Uniserrata 22
Adoneta, Acharia, Alarodia, Apoda, Cryptophobetron, Darna, Euclea, Euprosterna, Heterogenea, Isa, Isochaetes, Lithacodes, Monoleuca, Natad, Packardia, Parasa, Phobetron, Prolimacodes, Tortricidia 19

Table 2

Number of genera of Limacodidae in global zoogeographical realms"

动物地理区系 Zoogeographical realms 属数 No. of genera 占比 Proportion (%)
东洋区 Indomalayan 72 38.50
古北区 Palearctic 31 16.58
澳新区 Australasian 27 14.43
新热带区 Neotropical 27 14.43
非洲热带区 Afrotropical 22 11.76
新北区 Nearctic 19 10.16
东洋区 + 古北区 Indomalayan + Palearctic 19 10.16
新北区 + 新热带区 Nearctic + Neotropical 9 4.81
澳新区 + 东洋区 Australasian + Indomalayan 2 1.07
古北区 + 新北区 Palearctic + Nearctic 2 1.07
东洋区 + 新北区 Indomalayan + Nearctic 1 0.53
澳新区 + 东洋区 + 古北区 Australasian + Indomalayan + Palearctic 2 1.07
东洋区 + 古北区 + 新北区 Indomalayan + Palearctic + Nearctic 1 0.53
古北区 + 新北区 + 新热带区 Palearctic + Nearctic + Neotropical 1 0.53
东洋区 + 古北区 + 新北区 + 新热带区 Indomalayan + Palearctic + Nearctic + Neotropical 1 0.53

Table 3

Shared genera of Limacodidae in global zoogeographical realms"

属名 Genus 动物地理区系 Zoogeographical realms
Acharia + +
Alarodia + +
Altha + +
Aphendala + +
Apoda + +
Austrapoda + +
Belippa + +
Birthosea + +
Caissa + +
Ceratonema + +
Chalcocelis + +
Chalcoscelides + +
Chibaraga + +
Darna + + +
Euclea + +
Euprosterna + +
Heterogenea + +
Iraga + +
Iragoides + +
Isochaetes + +
Isa + + +
Mahanta + +
Miresa + +
Monoleuca + +
Monema + +
Narosa + +
Narosoideus + +
Natada + +
Neothosea + +
Parasa + + + +
Phlossa + +
Phobetron + +
Prolimacodes + +
Rhamnosa + +
Scopelodes + + +
Setora + +
Squamosa + +
Thosea + + +
总计 Sum 4 26 26 14 12 0

Fig. 2

Number of existing genera and endemic genera of Limacodidae in each zoogeographical realm"

Fig. 3

Correlation analysis between species richness and latitude"

Fig. 4

Top 15 countries of the richness of Limacodidae species"

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