Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1204-1211.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018044

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Population genetic structure of Gonionemus vertens based on the mitochondrial COI sequence

Qingqing Liu1, 2, Zhijun Dong1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Muping Coastal Environment Research Station, Yantai, Shandong 264003
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101408
    3 Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
  • Received:2018-03-08 Accepted:2018-07-04 Online:2019-01-08
  • Dong Zhijun
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Gonionemus vertens is widely distributed throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and is one of venomous jellyfish species in China. To investigate the population genetic structure of G. vertens, we sequenced the mtDNA COI gene in 104 individuals collected from four geographic locations along the coast of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and the homologous sequences of other 182 individuals which were obtained from GenBank were also analyzed. A total of 52 polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the 286 individuals, which defined 14 haplotypes. The overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.743 ± 0.012 and 1.046% ± 0.097%, respectively. Compared with several other giant jellyfish species, the genetic diversity of G. vertens was at the higher level. AMOVA analysis indicated that extremely significant difference existed among the groups, within populations and among the populations within groups, with 60.17% molecular variation among the groups, 13.37% molecular variation within populations, and 26.46% molecular variation among the populations within groups. Pairwise fixation index (Fst) values showed that significant population structure existed between the G. vertens population collected in Xiamen waters with other populations collected from Laoting, Dongying, Yantai, and Dalian waters, and the population structure throughout Dalian with Dongying, or with Yantai were also significant. Phylogeographic analysis of the COI region revealed two lineages. The results indicated that the complex life cycle characteristics, dispersal ability, geographic isolation, together with the prevailing ocean currents in this region, may be important factors influencing the genetic structure of G. vertens.

Key words: Gonionemus vertens, mtDNA, DNA barcode, population genetic structure, genetic differentiation

Fig. 1

Sketch map of sampling sites of Gonionemus vertens"

Table 1

Locations, number of individuals and diversity parameters for the population of Gonionemus vertens"

Haplotype composition (No. of inds.)
π (%)
GenBank accession
西北大西洋 Northwest Atlantic (NWA)
Great Bay, New Hampshire, America (GB)
7 2 Hap1(3); Hap14(4) 0.571 ± 0.119 0.912 ± 0.191 KY437905-911
Bass River, Yarmouth, America (BR)
17 3 Hap1(2); Hap12(12); Hap14(3) 0.485 ± 0.126 1.004 ± 0.270 KY437888-904
Hamblin Pond, Mashpee, America (HP)
18 1 Hap12(18) 0 0 KY437834-851
Farm Pond, Oak Bluffs, America (FP)
17 2 Hap1(1); Hap12(16) 0.118 ± 0.101 0.164 ± 0.141 KY437814-830
Sengekontacket Pond, Edgartown, America (SG)
3 2 Hap1(2); Hap12(1) 0.667 ± 0.314 0.931 ± 0.439 KY437831-833
Potter Pond, North Kingston, America (PP)
22 2 Hap1(2); Hap12(20) 0.173 ± 0.101 0.242 ± 0.141 KY437912-933
Mumford Cove, Groton, America (MC)
14 2 Hap1(13); Hap12(1) 0.143 ± 0.119 0.200 ± 0.166 KY437934-947
Pine Island, Groton, America (PI)
24 2 Hap1(23); Hap12(1) 0.083 ± 0.075 0.116 ± 0.105 KY437864-887
西北太平洋 Northwest Pacific (NWP)
Amur Bay, Peter the Great Gulf, Russia (AB)
3 1 Hap1(3) 0 0 KY437948-950
Vostok Bay, Peter the Great Gulf, Russia (VB)
30 2 Hap1(26); Hap11(4) 0.239 ± 0.092 0.048 ± 0.018 KY437951-980
日本越喜来湾 Okirai Bay, Japan (JP) 12 2 Hap1(1); Hap2(11) 0.167 ± 0.134 0.100 ± 0.080 KY437852-863
中国厦门 Xiamen, China (XM) 10 1 Hap10(10) 0 0 KF962130-139
中国烟台 Yantai, China (YT) 27 5 Hap2(23); Hap3(1); Hap4(1); Hap8(1); Hap9(1) 0.279 ± 0.112 0.148 ± 0.095 MH020717-743
中国大连 Dalian, China (DL) 30 4 Hap1(6); Hap2(19); Hap5(4); Hap6(1) 0.559 ± 0.086 0.307 ± 0.058 MH020640-669
中国东营 Dongying, China (DY) 18 1 Hap2(18) 0 0 MH020670-687
中国乐亭 Laoting, China (LT) 29 3 Hap1(2); Hap2(25); Hap7(2) 0.256 ± 0.102 0.106 ± 0.050 MH020688-716
东北太平洋 Northeast Pacific (NEP)
美国圣胡安岛 San Juan Island, America (FH) 4 1 Hap13(4) 0 0 KY437982-985
东北大西洋 Northeast Atlantic (NEA)
冰岛阿夫塔内斯 Álftanes, Iceland (IC) 1 1 Hap13(1) 0 0 KY437981
总群体 Total - 286 14 - 0.743 ± 0.012 1.046 ± 0.097

Table 2

Spatial analysis of molecular variance among population of Gonionemus vertens"

变异来源 Source of variation 自由度 d.f. 平方和 Sum of squares 方差比例 % of variation F P
群组间 Among groups 3 362.274 60.17 Fsc = 0.66436 0.0000
组内群体间 Among populations within groups 14 247.509 26.46 Fst = 0.86631 0.0000
群体内 Within populations 268 136.735 13.37 Fct = 0.60168 0.0002
总计 Total 285 746.517 100

Fig. 2

Phylogenetic trees within Gonionemus vertens derived by Bayesian inference"

Fig. 3

Median-joining haplotype network of Gonionemus vertens based on the combined sequence of COI. The color fan area indicates the proportion of each sample population in the same haplotype; the circle area indicates the frequency of haplotype occurrence; the red dot represents the intermediate mutation node. The abbreviation of the sampling points in the figure is consistent with Table 1."

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