Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 210-216.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017311

• Orginal Article • Previous Article    

An observation to the new initiative of community conservation guard posts in the pilot Three-River-Source National Park

Xiang Zhao1, Ziyun Zhu1, 2, Zhi Lu1, 2, *, Lingyun Xiao1, 2, Sonamtso Mei1, Hao Wang2   

  1. 1 Shanshui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
    2 Center for Nature and Society, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2017-11-20 Accepted:2018-02-20 Online:2018-05-05
  • Lu Zhi
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Community-based conservation has been proven as an effective approach for biodiversity conservation, and is an important part for National Parks in China. As the first pilot of the new national park system in China, the Three-River-Source National Park initiated a new arrangement to employ 16,621 villagers from each household living in the national park to serve as conservation guards. Local Tibetan herders take the main responsibility of Sanjiangyuan conservation and in return receive payments from the national park. Such an arrangement coincides with local people’s willingness of participating in conservation, influenced by traditional Tibetan Buddhist culture. However, in addition to conservation, poverty alleviation is set as a priority target especially when guards were selected, which to certain extent compromised the effectiveness of conservation. While understanding the needs of poverty alleviation, we analyzed institutional rationales of such a selection, and made policy suggestions that conservation targets should become the first priority and more resources and space should be allocated to local governments and communities for self-governance on conservation decisions and actions. NGOs may also contribute to assist these practices.

Key words: Three-River-Source region, national park, community-based conservation, community conservation guard posts

Fig. 1

The most necessary supports for community-based conservation in the Three-River-Source region, answered by local herders (N = 90)"

Table 1

immigration from rangeland to towns in some village in the Three-River-Source National Park"


of households
living in rangeland
living in rangeland
Ratio of
immigration to towns
Suojia Township
君曲村 Junqu 362 1,206 183 688 49%
牙曲村 Yaqu 579 1,902 440 1,433 24%
莫曲村 Moqu 303 1,327 119 357 61%
当曲村 Dangqu 306 1,422 276 750 10%
Qumar River
勒池村 Lechi 284 1,112 250 989 12%
多秀村 Duoxiu 374 1,160 307 911 18%
措池村 Cuochi 461 1,588 227 782 51%
昂拉村 Angla 381 1,301 326 1,147 14%
Zhaqing Township
地青村 Diqing 544 2,043 326 1,142 40%
格赛村 Gesai 416 1,653 146 711 65%
昂闹村 Angnao 358 1,308 161 564 55%
达清村 Daqing 408 1,447 59 205 86%
总计 Total 4,776 17,469 2,820 9,679 40%
[1] Cetas ER, Yasué M (2017) A systematic review of motivational values and conservation success in and around protected areas. Conservation Biology, 31, 203-212.
[2] DeCaro D, Stokes M (2008) Social-psychological principles of community-based conservation and conservancy motivation: Attaining goals within an autonomy-supportive environment. Conservation Biology, 22, 1443-1451.
[3] Evans SM, Birchenough AC (2001) Community-based management of the environment: Lessons from the past and options for the future. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11, 137-147.
[4] Gibson CC, Marks SA (1995) Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: An assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa. World Development, 23, 941-957.
[5] Huang XC, Zhou LA (2017) Transition in governmental governance mechanisms and development of social organizations. Social Sciences in China, (11), 118-138, 206-207. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[黄晓春, 周黎安 (2017) 政府治理机制转型与社会组织发展. 中国社会科学, (11), 118-138, 206-207.]
[6] Jin TJ, Shen CC (2012) Government ecology management, core actors in local government and political tournament, Social Sciences in Nanjing, (6), 65-70, 77. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[金太军, 沈承诚 (2012) 政府生态治理、地方政府核心行动者与政治锦标赛. 南京社会科学, (6), 65-70, 77.]
[7] Liu JX (2008) An analysis of Chinese political tournament. Journal of Public Management, (3), 24-29, 121-122. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘剑雄 (2008) 中国的政治锦标赛竞争研究. 公共管理学报, (3), 24-29, 121-122.]
[8] Measham TG, Lumbasi JA (2013) Success factors for community-based natural resource management (CBNRM): Lessons from Kenya and Australia. Environmental Management, 52, 649.
[9] Songorwa AN (1999) Community-based wildlife management (CWM) in Tanzania: Are the communities interested. World Development, 27, 2061-2079.
[10] Wang J, Sun JP, Shi L, Li N, Ma Z, Meng XX (2016) Natural reserve system of China: Current status, problems and prospect. China Population, Resources and Environment, 26, 270-273. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王静, 孙军平, 石磊, 李宁, 马中, 孟秀祥 (2016) 中国自然保护区建设的现状、存在问题及展望. 中国人口资源与环境, 26, 270-273.]
[11] Wang QF, Yu GR, He HL, He NP, Sheng WP, Ma AN, Zheng H, Zuo Y (2015) Thinking of construction of the nature reserve system and integrated system in China. Resources Sciences, 37, 1357-1366. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王秋凤, 于贵瑞, 何洪林, 何念鹏, 盛文萍, 马安娜, 郑涵, 左尧 (2015) 中国自然保护区体系和综合管理体系建设的思考. 资源科学, 37, 1357-1366.]
[12] Yang XD (2012) A pressure system: A brief history of a concept. Journal of Social Sciences, (11), 4-12. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[杨雪冬 (2012) 压力型体制: 一个概念的简明史. 社会科学, (11), 4-12.]
[13] Zhou LA (2014) Administrative subcontract. Chinese Journal of Sociology, 34(6), 1-38. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[周黎安 (2014) 行政发包制. 社会, 34(6), 1-38.]
[14] Zhou XG, Lian H (2012) Modes of governance in the Chinese bureaucracy: A “control rights” theory. Sociological Studies, 27(5), 69-93, 243. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[周雪光, 练宏 (2012) 中国政府的治理模式: 一个“控制权”理论. 社会学研究, 27(5), 69-93, 243.]
[1] Chen Xing, Zhao Lianjun, Hu Xixi, Luo Chunping, Liang Chunping, Jiang Shiwei, Liang Lei, Zheng Weichao, Guan Tianpei. Impact of livestock terrain utilization patterns on wildlife: A case study of Wanglang National Nature Reserve [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 630-637.
[2] Lü Zhongmei. Systematic legislation for nature conservation with national parks as the main body [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 128-136.
[3] Tang Fanglin, Yan Yan, Liu Wenguo. Construction progress of national park system in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 123-127.
[4] Wang Yi, Huang Baorong. Institutional reform for building China’s national park system: Review and prospects [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 117-122.
[5] Zhang Chen,Guo Xin,Weng Sutong,Gao Jun,Fu Jing. Cross-border governance system construction of Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot by referring to the experience of French regional parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 97-103.
[6] Dai Yunchuan,Xue Yadong,Zhang Yunyi,Li Diqiang. Summary comments on assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 104-113.
[7] Wang Yufei,Su Hongqiao,Zhao Xinrui,Su Yang,Luo Min. Conservation easement-inspired adaptive management methods for natural protected areas: A case study on Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 88-96.
[8] Li Shuang,Sun Xiaoping,Fang Yanjun,Zhang Yinlong,Cao Mingchang. Evaluation of the spatial characteristics of farmer livelihood assets in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 64-75.
[9] Li Jie,Li Weiyue,Fu Jing,Gao Jun,Yang Lei,He Weihang. Using low-altitude UAV remote sensing to identify national park functional zoning boundary: A case study in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 42-50.
[10] Yu Jianping,Shen Yunyi,Song Xiaoyou,Chen Xiaonan,Li Sheng,Shen Xiaoli. Evaluating the effectiveness of functional zones for black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) protection in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 5-12.
[11] Qian Haiyuan,Yu Jianping,Shen Xiaoli,Ding Ping,Li Sheng. Diversity and composition of birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 76-80.
[12] Zhigang Jiang. On classification of protected areas and the construction of China’s Protected Area System with national parks as a leading part [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(7): 775-779.
[13] Yangjing Peng,Jian Fan,Shaohua Xing,Guofa Cui. Overview and classification outlook of natural protected areas in mainland China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(3): 315-325.
[14] Huijie Qiao,Xiaoyi Wang,Wei Wang,Zhenhua Luo,Ke Tang,Yan Huang,Shengnan Yang,Weiwei Cao,Xinquan Zhao,Jianping Jiang,Junhua Hu. From nature reserve to national park system pilot: Changes of environmental coverage in the Three-River-Source National Park and implications for amphibian and reptile conservation [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(2): 202-209.
[15] Shitao Xu,Xiqiang Song,Peng Ling,Yuanjun Chen,Mingxun Ren. The University Forests of Japan and implications for biodiversity conservation and national park development in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(1): 96-104.
Full text



[1] WANG Xi-Qun, MA Lu-Yi, GUO Bao-Xiang, GE Ji-Wen, FAN Shen-Hou. The conservation of Metasequoia glyptostroboides and its current problems in China[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2004, 12(3): 377 -385 .
[2] Zhigang Jiang,Yong Ma,Yi Wu,Yingxiang Wang,Zuojian Feng,Kaiya Zhou,Shaoying Liu,Zhenhua Luo,Chunwang Li. China’s mammalian diversity[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(3): 351 -364 .
[3] Quanying Du, Zhi Li, Shurun Liu, Hongyan Liu. Dynamics of species diversity and characteristics of halophytic plant communities around saline lakes in arid and semi-arid regions of Inner Mongolia[J]. Biodiv Sci, 2007, 15(3): 271 -281 .
[4] Yefei Shang, Ming Li, Bo Ding, Hao Niu, Zhenning Yang, Xiaoqiang Chen, Gaoyi Cao, Xiaodong Xie. Advances in Auxin Regulation of Plant Stomatal Development[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2017, 52(2): 235 -240 .
[5] . [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1964, (2): 265 .
[6] ZHANG Yu-Mei-, GONG Qing-Fang-, YANG Jia-Qian-, CENG Guang-Zhi-, TAN Ning-Hua. Antioxidant Constituents from Pinus massoniana (Pinaceae)[J]. Plant Diversity, 2013, 35(2): 209 -215 .
[7] ZHANG Jia-Ning-, LIU Kun-, WANG Jie-Gong. The Relationship between Seed Germinability and Species Abundance in Communities on Eastern QinghaiTibet Plateau[J]. Plant Diversity, 2013, 35(3): 317 -326 .
[8] CHANG Sheng-He, YING Jia, ZHANG Ji-Jun, LI Bin, LI Zhen-Sheng. Isolation and Characterization of a BBC1 cDNA from Common Wheat[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2003, 45(7): 878 -882 .
[9] . [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2015, 39(11): 1123 .
[10] ZHOU Hong-Hua, LI Wei-Hong, AYUP Mubarek, and XU Qian. Xylem hydraulic conductivity and embolism properties of desert riparian forest plants and its response to drought stress[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(1): 19 -29 .