Biodiversity Science ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 479-492.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015021

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Community characteristics of a mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot in the Wuyi Mountains, Fujian Province, southeastern China

Hui Ding1, *, Yanming Fang2, *, Qing Yang3, Xiao Chen3, Fayin Yuan2, Hui Xu3, Liheng He4, Jing Yan2, Tingting Chen1, 5, Chaojian Yu5, Haigen Xu1, **()   

  1. 1 Research Center for Nature Conservation and Biodiversity/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory on Biosafety, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 Southern Modern Forestry Collaborative Innovation Center/College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    3 Wuyishan Biological Institute of Fujian Province, Wuyishan, Fujian 354300
    4 School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    5 College of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044
  • Received:2015-01-23 Accepted:2015-05-28 Online:2015-08-03
  • Ding Hui,Fang Yanming,Xu Haigen

Wuyi Mountains preserve the primary forest ecosystem characteristic of the mid-subtropics. We established a large-scale plots in this area according to standard international protocols (Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS). Community characteristics such as flora composition, floristic characteristics, DBH structure and spatial distribution patterns in a 9.6 ha plot were analyzed. The results showed that the vascular plants in the plot belonged to 68 families, 135 genera, 232 species. Among these plants, trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm) belonged to 44 families, 86 genera, 171 species. For plants with tropical elements, family and genera accounted for 68.58% and 58.83% of total, respectively, which indicates a tropical feature of the ecosystem. There were many rare and endangered species, including four State Priority Protected Wild Plant Species at Level II, two threatened species (VU) of Red List of China’s Biodiversity, one species of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES ) (Appendix II) and 72 endemic species to China. Rare species (N = 29, less than 1 individuals/ha) accounted for 16.96%. Fagaceae and Theaceae, with a total importance values of greater than 40%, were most dominant. Castanopsis carlesii, C. fordii, C. eyrei and Engelhardtia fenzlii had the largest importance values but no species significantly dominated the community. Small sized trees dominated the plot, with a mean DBH of 5.10 cm and the DBH-class distribution presented an inverse “J” shape. The emergent layer was divided into two sub-layers with C. carlesii, C. fordii, C. eyrei dominating the first sub-layer. Castanopsis carlesii and C. fordii had an even distribution, at the same time, C. eyrei, E. fenzlii, Syzygium buxifolium and Schima superba had a clustered distribution.

Key words: forest dynamics plot, mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, species composition, community structure, Wuyi Mountains

Fig. 1

Contour map of the Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

Table 1

The areal-types of families and genera of trees in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

分布区类型 Area types 科数
No. of
科的百分比 Percentage of families (%) 属数
No. of
Percentage of genera (%)
1. 广布 Cosmopolitan 9 - 1 -
2. 泛热带 Pantropic 14 40.00 12 14.12
3. 东亚(热带、亚热带)及热带南美间断 Tropical and Subtropical East Asia, (South)Tropical America disjuncted 6 17.14 9 10.59
4. 旧世界热带 Old World Tropic 1 2.86 9 10.59
5. 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia Oceania 1 2.86 4 4.71
6. 热带亚洲至热带非洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 1 2.86 2 2.35
7. 热带亚洲 Tropical Asia 1 2.86 14 16.47
热带小计 Subtotal of Tropical (2-7) 24 68.58 50 58.83
8. 北温带 North Temperate 9 25.71 10 11.76
9. 东亚及北美间断 East Asia and North America disjuncted 2 5.71 11 12.94
10. 旧世界温带 Old World Temperate 0 0.00 1 1.18
14. 东亚 East Asia 0 0.00 9 10.59
温带小计 Subtotal of Temperate (8-14) 11 31.42 31 36.47
15. 中国特有 Endemic to China 0 0.00 4 4.71
合计 Total 44 100.00 86 100.00

Fig. 2

Species-area curve in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot. ×: Measured values; ·: Simulated values."

Fig. 3

Sequence curve of the relative density of species in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

Table 2

Top 10 families with importance values (IV) in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

科名 Family 属数 No. of genera 物种数 No. of species 个体数 No. of individuals 科重要值 IV of families (%)
壳斗科 Fagaceae 3 14 10,922 27.40
山茶科 Theaceae 7 18 11,211 13.56
杜英科 Elaeocarpaceae 2 5 2,554 6.23
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 2 10 5,343 5.76
樟科 Lauraceae 7 17 4,284 5.40
冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 1 14 3,768 5.01
木兰科 Magnoliaceae 3 5 3,848 4.51
胡桃科 Juglandaceae 1 1 2,489 4.43
桃金娘科 Myrtaceae 1 1 3,671 3.69
山矾科 Symplocaceae 1 9 2,687 3.38

Table 3

Top 10 species with importance values (IV) and their basal area of in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

物种 Species 重要值
IV (%)
Basal area (m2)
米槠 Castanopsis carlesii 7.21 50.19
毛锥 Castanopsis fordii 5.28 25.86
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 4.58 30.97
少叶黄杞 Engelhardtia fenzlii 4.43 21.57
赤楠 Syzygium buxifolium 3.69 4.97
木荷 Schima superba 3.20 15.91
弯蒴杜鹃 Rhododendron henryi 2.96 4.58
矩叶鼠刺 Itea oblonga 2.90 2.58
格药柃 Eurya muricata 2.79 2.44
罗浮锥 Castanopsis faberi 2.79 19.04

Fig. 4

Distribution of individuals with different DBH-class (1-51cm) in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

Fig. 5

Distribution of DBH class of top 9 species with importance values in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

Table 4

Top 10 species with individuals at different layers in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

第I亚层 The first sub-layer 第II亚层 The second sub-layer
物种 Species 个体数 No. of individuals 物种 Species 个体数 No. of individuals
米槠 Castanopsis carlesii 776 毛锥 Castanopsis fordii 1,303
毛锥 Castanopsis fordii 536 矩叶鼠刺 Itea oblonga 1,246
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 508 少叶黄杞 Engelhardtia fenzlii 1,188
日本杜英 Elaeocarpus japonicus 437 赤楠 Syzygium buxifolium 1,128
少叶黄杞 Engelhardtia fenzlii 417 弯蒴杜鹃 Rhododendron henryi 1,124
木荷 Schima superba 378 福建含笑 Michelia fujianensis 776
罗浮锥 Castanopsis faberi 353 格药柃 Eurya muricata 691
赤杨叶 Alniphyllum fortunei 349 港柯 Lithocarpus harlandii 677
港柯 Lithocarpus harlandii 274 细柄蕈树 Altingia gracilipes 642
中华杜英 Elaeocarpus chinensis 265 木荷 Schima superba 626

Fig. 6

Distribution of individuals with different height classes in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

Fig. 7

Spatial distribution of top 10 species with importance values in Wuyi Mountains forest dynamics plot"

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