生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 80-87.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016156

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论国家公园建设的公众参与

张婧雅, 张玉钧*   

  1. 北京林业大学园林学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-12 接受日期:2016-10-06 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-02-08
  • 通讯作者: 张玉钧
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2015ZCQ-YL-04)

On public participation in the construction of national parks

Jingya Zhang, Yujun Zhang*   

  1. School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2016-06-12 Accepted:2016-10-06 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-02-08
  • Contact: Zhang Yujun

摘要:

公众参与是一种提高公众积极性和主动权的新型管理策略, 应用于保护地管理已数十年, 迄今已贯穿于许多国家的国家公园管理环节中, 成为国家公园治理的必然趋势。我国现行的保护地管理体系实行属地管理, 其建设和管理在实际中多为政府行为, 鲜有的公众参与也多为非规范的、被动的。本文梳理并提炼了保护地管理中公众参与的起源、内涵及特征, 在借鉴国外保护地管理公众参与实践经验的基础上, 依照公众参与程度的高低, 将国家公园建设管理的公众参与途径分为信息反馈、咨询、协议与合作4个层次; 提出了我国国家公园的公众参与途径, 旨在为我国国家公园体制的建设管理提供参考。

关键词: 国家公园, 保护地, 公众参与, 利益相关者, 国家公园治理

Abstract:

Public participation is an attempt by development partners to broadly consult and involve the public as to where projects should be situated. The clear trend is toward broader and more frequent public involvement and collaboration for national park governance as public participation has been applied in the management of protected areas for several decades. Public participation in the Chinese protected area system presents a passive and non-standardized situation. The preliminary model of public participation in China’s national parks is presented in this paper through synthesizing the background of the construction of China’s national park system. Results obtained in this research indicate that, according to the degree of public participation, there could be four types of public participation in China’s national parks, which include information feedback, consultation, agreement and partnerships. The impacts of our obtained results provide references for a pilot project involving the construction of China’s national park system.

Key words: national park, protected area, public participation, stakeholders, national park governance