生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (10): 1146-1153.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016210

• • 上一篇    下一篇

云南萨尔温江水系3条一级支流鱼类区系存在度及其在鱼类保护区设置中的意义

周伟*(), 李旭, 李凯媛, 李明会   

  1. 西南林业大学云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室, 昆明 650224
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-30 接受日期:2016-09-22 出版日期:2016-10-20 发布日期:2016-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 周伟
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31160419)和云南省林学一流学科建设项目(51600625)

Fish faunal presence value in three first level tributaries of the Salween River in Yunnan, China and its meaning for aquatic nature reserve plan- ning

Wei Zhou*(), Xu Li, Kaiyuan Li, Minghui Li   

  1. Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2016-07-30 Accepted:2016-09-22 Online:2016-10-20 Published:2016-11-10
  • Contact: Zhou Wei

摘要:

将经典动物区系与区系存在度分析方法相结合, 探讨云南萨尔温江水系的南滚河、南汀河及勐波罗河3条一级支流的鱼类多样性相对于萨尔温江中游水系鱼类的代表性, 比较其鱼类区系存在度差异, 分析区系组成特征及科、属在区系建成中的重要性, 旨在探讨区系存在度指标对鱼类保护区设置的指导作用。结果显示, 萨尔温江中游水系(云南段)共记录土著鱼类74种, 分隶于5目12科45属。3条支流共有土著鱼类53种, 分隶于5目12科38属, 其中南滚河鱼类有9科23属32种, 南汀河有11科33属47种, 勐波罗河有10科26属33种。按种类的绝对数排序, 3条支流均是鲤科、鮡科和条鳅科排前3位。而按区系存在度结果排序, 均是鳗鲡科、鳢科、刺鳅科、合鳃鱼科和鮡科等5个科位列前5位。两种方法排序结果显示, 3条支流表现出完全的一致性。同一属级分类阶元的区系存在度在不同支流间变异较大, 属级和种级分类阶元的地域性分布特点渐趋明显。这3条一级支流鱼类均是以老第三纪原始类群为主体, 南方类群次之, 还有少量青藏高原类群。结合鱼类区系存在度研究结果, 在设置淡水鱼类保护区时, 应考虑在大水系的上中下游分别选择1条或多条一级支流建立保护区; 如果目、科级存在度高的阶元在鱼类保护区规划时涵盖得多, 则保护了较多的高级阶元, 但并非是必须考虑的阶元; 而属级存在度值则是保护区规划时需要特别关注的事项。

关键词: 鱼类区系, 区系存在度, 生物多样性, 鱼类自然保护区, 萨尔温江水系

Abstract:

By combining the classical faunal analysis method and the value of faunal presence method, we analyzed fish diversities and their representatives in three first level tributaries including Nangunhe, Nantinghe and Mengboluohe in Yunnan to the middle Salween River system, to compare the difference in values of fish faunal presence and to analyze the characteristics of the faunal composition and the importance of families and genera in fauna formation. The purpose of the study was to explore the guiding role of the fish faunal presence value index in planning and establishing fish nature reserves. Results showed that a total of 74 endemic species were recorded in middle Salween River system in the Yunnan section, belonging to 5 orders, 12 families, and 45 genera. 53 species were recorded in these three first level tributaries, belonging to 5 orders, 12 families, and 38 genera, among them 32 species belonging to 9 families and 23 genera in Nangunhe; 47 species belonging to 11 families and 33 genera in Nantinghe; and 33 species belonging to 10 families and 26 genera in Mengboluohe. Sorted by species absolute number, Cyprinidae, Cobitidae and Sisoridae were ranked in the top 3 families in the three first level tributaries. Sorted by the fauna presence value, Anguillidae, Channidae, Mastacembelidae, Cobitidae, Synbranchidae and Sisoridae were ranked in the top 5 families in the three first level tributaries. Results from the two methods were consistent with one another. The faunal presence value in the same genus changed greatly in the different tributaries, and the regional distribution features of the genus and species became obviously. The fish composition in the three first level tributaries was composed of a primitive group from the Palaeogene, comprised of a group that originated from the south and a small number of taxa that originated from Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The results of the fish fauna presence values indicated that one or more of the first level tributaries should be selected as reserves in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the main stream when setting up freshwater fish natural reserves. The greater the taxa of orders and families with a high fauna presence value covered when planning fish natural reserves, the greater the protection, which was not an element must be considered. However, the fauna presence value of the genera should be a special concern when planning reserves.

Key words: fish fauna, faunal presence value, biodiversity, fish nature reserve, Salween River system