生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 3-10.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014070

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

唇形科鼠尾草属的物种多样性与分布

魏宇昆*, 王琦, 黄艳波   

  1. 上海辰山植物园, 中科院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-08 修回日期:2014-08-20 出版日期:2015-01-20 发布日期:2015-05-04
  • 通讯作者: 魏宇昆
  • 基金资助:

    丹参组的系统发育与二萜类代谢多样性研究;华东几种药用植物和珍稀濒危植物保护生物学研究

Species diversity and distribution of Salvia (Lamiaceae)

Yukun Wei*, Qi Wang, Yanbo Huang   

  1. Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, CAS, Shanghai 201602
  • Received:2014-04-08 Revised:2014-08-20 Online:2015-01-20 Published:2015-05-04
  • Contact: Yukun Wei

摘要:

为全面了解唇形科鼠尾草属(Salvia)植物的多样性和分布格局及其形成机制, 作者查阅了国际权威生物多样性信息网站(GBIF, The Plant List)、中国数字植物标本馆(CVH)、教学标本资源共享平台和中国自然保护区标本资源共享平台中该属物种名称及标本采集信息, 以及国内32家标本馆的标本, 分析并绘制其物种分布图。结果显示, 具有明确地理坐标的世界和中国分布信息分别有57,674条和11,596条, 已接受种名952个。在世界范围内, 以中南美洲(510种)物种数量最多, 其次是西亚(270种)、欧洲(117种)、东亚(97种)和北美(94种); 在国家尺度上, 以墨西哥物种数量最多(322种), 其次是俄罗斯(109种)、土耳其(88种)、美国(85种)和中国(82种)。在中国, 以云南和四川省鼠尾草种数最多(合计占全国的63%), 两省分布最多的县域地区分别是玉龙县(23种)、香格里拉县(20种)、大理市(13种)和木里县(17种)、宝兴县(13种)、马边县(13种)。在自然地理区域上, 以横断山区最为丰富, 占该属全国物种总数的52.8%, 特有种达23种; 广布种以荔枝草(S. plebeia)分布的县域数量最多(395县), 其次是鼠尾草(S. japonica) (199)、丹参(S. miltiorrhiza) (192)、贵州鼠尾草(S. cavaleriei) (173)、华鼠尾草(S. chinensis) (153)和粘毛鼠尾草(S. roborowskii) (100)。鼠尾草属主要分布于北半球温带及亚热带高海拔地区, 中国是东亚的多样性分布中心, 代表性广布种及狭域特有种均有分布, 尤以云南、四川以及横断山区的物种多样性和特有种比例最高。

关键词: Salvia, 唇形科, 物种多样性, 世界分布, 中国特有种

Abstract:

To understand patterns of species diversity distribution and speciation mechanisms for Salvia (Lamiaceae) plants, we queried species names and specimen collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), The Plant List, Chinese Virtual Herbarium (CVH), Specimen Resources Sharing Platform for Education, Specimen Resources Sharing Platform of Chinese Nature Reserves as well as collection information for Salvia spp. specimens preserved in 32 Chinese herbaria. Based on these collection data, we analyzed the distributional patterns and plotted distribution maps at the country and geographic regional level (e.g. the Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Wuling Mountains, Nanling Mountains, Dabie Mountains, and Tianmu-Huangshan Mountains), respectively. Additionally, the records from Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China were obtained at the county level. In total our sample consisted of 57,674 global distributional records and 11,596 Chinese records, and 952 accepted names of Salvia were confirmed. Globally, Central and South America (510 species) support the largest number of species, followed by West Asia (270 species), Europe (117 species), East Asia (97 species) and North America (94 species). At the national level, Mexico supports the largest number of species (322), followed by Russia (109), Turkey (88), the United States (85) and China (82). Within China, Yunnan and Sichuan provinces support a substantially larger number of species than other provinces, accounting for 63% of the total number of Salvia species in China. The three counties within Yunnan and Sichuan provinces that contain the largest number of species are Yulong (23), Shangri-la (20), Dali (13), and Muli (17), Baoxing (13) and Mabian (13). The Hengduan Mountains, with 52.8% of all Salvia species in China, contain more Salvia species than any other region in China; 23 species are endemic to this area with narrow distributions. Native Chinese Salvia species were divided into four abundance ranks based on the number of county-level records: S. plebeia ranked the highest (395 distribution counties), followed by S. japonica (199 counties), S. miltiorrhiza (192 counties), S. cavaleriei (173 counties), S. chinensis (153 counties), and S. roborowskii (100 counties). Our results indicate that Salvia is mainly distributed in temperate and subtropical high-altitude countries of the northern hemisphere; China is the center of diversity in East Asia, containing representative and narrow-range endemic species. Within China, the Hengduan Mountains have the highest species diversity and percentage of endemic species.

Key words: Salvia, Lamiaceae, species diversity, world distribution, Chinese endemic species