生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 896-903.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017031

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于红外相机技术的皖南山区森林生态系统兽类资源现状

刘凯1, 贺君1, 张继辉1, 冯俊1, 宇强1, 顾长明2, 吴海龙1, *()   

  1. 1 (安徽省重要生物资源保护与利用研究重点实验室, 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 安徽芜湖 241000)
    2 (安徽省自然保护管理站, 合肥 230001)
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-07 接受日期:2017-05-12 出版日期:2017-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 吴海龙 E-mail:whlong@mail.ahnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金项目:
    科技部基础性工作专项(2015FY110200)和安徽省林业厅专项基金(2016FACJ2001)

Mammal resource status in the mountain forest ecosystems of southern Anhui Province based on camera trap data

Kai Liu1, Jun He1, Jihui Zhang1, Jun Feng1, Qiang Yu1, Changming Gu2, Hailong Wu1, *()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory for the Conservation and Utilization of Important Biological Resources, Anhui Province; College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000
    2 Nature Protection and Administration Station of Anhui Province, Hefei 230001
  • Received:2017-02-07 Accepted:2017-05-12 Online:2017-08-20
  • Contact: Wu Hailong E-mail:whlong@mail.ahnu.edu.cn

皖南山区是安徽省陆生脊椎动物资源最丰富的动物地理区域, 为获得该区域森林生态系统中兽类资源的概况, 本研究于2013年7月至2015年10月利用红外相机技术对该区8个省级以上自然保护区(或风景名胜区)的兽类资源进行调查, 并通过与文献记录进行比较, 分析该区兽类资源的变化趋势及其原因。本研究共布设了121个相机位点, 其中有效相机位点109个, 累计6,375个相机工作日, 共获得兽类有效独立照片1,361张, 鉴定兽类5目12科19种。拍摄率和相对丰富度较高的前5种依次为小麂(Muntiacus reevesi)、野猪(Sus scrofa)、藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)、赤腹松鼠(Callosciurus erythraeus)和猪獾(Arctonyx collaris), 除藏酋猴外, 其他4种以及果子狸(Paguma larvata)在皖南山区广泛分布。就所监测到的国家重点保护动物而言, 猕猴(Macaca mulatta)的相对丰富度约为藏酋猴的2/5, 黑麂(Muntiacus crinifrons)约为小麂的1/5, 黄喉貂(Martes flavigula)和中华鬣羚(Capricornis milneedwardsii)均不到黑麂的1/4, 而黑熊(Ursus thibetanus)在所监测到的兽类中相对丰富度最低。与30多年前的历史记录相比, 除黑熊外, 大中型食肉目动物无一拍摄记录, 暗示皖南山区森林生态系统中的豹(Panthera pardus)、云豹(Neofelis nebulosa)、狼(Canis lupus)等顶级捕食者已极其稀少, 或已消失, 而草食性的小麂和杂食性的野猪成为该区相对丰富度最高的前两种兽类。广义线性模型(generalized linear model)分析结果显示, 在2个月的监测时间内, 红外相机捕获的物种数与调查区域面积(z = 2.04, P = 0.04)和有效独立照片数(z = 2.10, P = 0.04)呈正相关, 而与有效相机位点数(z = 1.63, P = 0.10)以及相机工作日(z = 1.85, P = 0.06)无显著相关性。本研究结果客观地反映出皖南山区森林生态系统大中型兽类资源现状, 为后续针对国家重点保护兽类开展动态监测以及保护和管理提供了基础资料。

关键词: 红外相机技术, 自然保护区, 拍摄率, 相对丰富度, 大中型兽类

To examine the diversity and abundance of mammals in the mountain forest ecosystems of southern mountainous areas in Anhui Province, a total of 121 cameras were installed at eight sample plots including two national and five provincial nature reserves and the Huangshan Mountain Scenic Area between July 2013 and October 2015. In total, 6,375 trap days and 1,361 effective independent photographs were collected. 19 species belonging to 5 orders and 12 families were recorded. The first five species of photographic rate and relative abundance index were Muntiacus reevesi, Sus scrofa, Macaca thibetana, Callosciurus erythraeus, and Arctonyx collaris. Except Macaca thibetana, the other four species among the five and Paguma larvata were widely distributed in mountainous areas of south Anhui Province. For those species under special state protection, the relative abundance index of Macaca mulatta was nearly two fifths of Macaca thibetana; the relative abundance index of Muntiacus crinifrons was nearly one fifth of Muntiacus reevesi; Martes flavigula and Capricornis sumatraensis was about one fourth of Muntiacus crinifrons. The relative abundance index of Ursus thibetanus was minimal among these recorded species. Compared to historical records collected thirty years ago, Ursus thibetanus was the sole large species in Carnivora captured by camera traps in this study, which indicates that the top predators, including Panthera pardus, Neofelis nebulosa, Canis lupus and Cuon alpines, were extremely sparse or had vanished from this area. As a result, the vegetarian Muntiacus reevesi and omnivorous Sus scrofa had the highest abundance amongst those mammals in this area. Correlation analysis with generalized linear models indicated that the number of species captured by infrared cameras positively correlated with the surveyed area (z = 2.04, P = 0.04) and effective independent photographs (z = 2.10, P = 0.04), while it did not associate with effective camera sites (z = 1.63, P = 0.10) and total trap days (z = 1.85, P = 0.06). Results of this study provide baseline data for a follow-up to the dynamic monitoring, protection and management of key national protected mammals.

Key words: camera traps, nature reserve, photographic rate, relative abundance, large and medium-size mammal

表1

本研究各调查区域基本概况及红外相机数(括号内为核心区面积)"

东经
East longitude
北纬
North latitude
面积
Area (ha)
调查时间
Survey time
相机数
Number of camera
黄山风景区
Huangshan Mountain Scenic Area (HS)
118°01'-118°17' 30°01'-30°18' 16,060 2015.5-2015.10 36
牯牛降国家级自然保护区
Guniujiang National Nature Reserve (GNJ)
117°15'-117°34' 29°59'-30°06' 6,713 (3,147) 2015.8-2015.12 29
清凉峰国家级自然保护区
Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve (QLF)
118°45'-118°53' 30°03'-30°09' 7,811 (2,543) 2014.1-2014.3 18
老山省级自然保护区
Laoshan Provincial Nature Reserve (LS)
117°39'-117°48' 30°19'-30°27' 13,855 (4,284) 2013.7-2013.11 24
岭南省级自然保护区
Lingnan Provincial Nature Reserve (LN)
118°36'-118°40' 30°28'-30°33' 5,000 (226.7) 2014.5-2014.7 8
板桥省级自然保护区
Banqiao Provincial Nature Reserve (BQ)
119°10'-119°20' 29°23'-30°05' 2,771 (800) 2014.5-2014.7 7
查湾省级自然保护区
Zhawan Provincial Nature Reserve (ZW)
117°31'-117°33' 29°37'-29°39' 1,600 (453) 2014.3-2014.6 7
盘台省级自然保护区
Pantai Provincial Nature Reserve (PT)
117°39'-117°48' 30°19'-30°27' 540 (206) 2014.7-2014.9 4

图1

调查区域及红外相机位点分布图。各区域名称缩写见表1。"

表2

皖南山区各调查区域红外相机拍摄结果以及兽类物种数量。各调查区域名称缩写见表1。"

有效相机位点数
Number of sites
相机工作日
Camera days
独立有效照片数
Number of photos
物种数
Number of species
黄山风景区 HS 34 2,019 474 14
牯牛降国家级自然保护区 GNJ 28 1,498 257 12
清凉峰国家级自然保护区 QLF 13 637 99 8
老山省级自然保护区 LS 12 966 232 15
岭南省级自然保护区 LN 7 382 55 9
板桥省级自然保护区 BQ 7 405 163 12
查湾省级自然保护区 ZW 5 287 58 9
盘台省级自然保护区 PT 3 181 23 6
合计 Total 109 6,375 1,361 19

表3

皖南山区各调查区域的兽类物种相对丰富度。各调查区域名称缩写见表1。"

物种
Species
相对丰富度 Relative abundance (%)
黄山风景区
HS
牯牛降
GNJ
清凉峰
QLF
老山
LS
查湾
ZW
岭南
LN
盘台
PT
板桥
BQ
合计
Total
赤腹松鼠 Callosciurus erythraeus 8.86 21.01 9.09 7.33 7.02 1.82 8.70 4.29 9.99
倭花鼠 Tamiops maritimus 0.63 6.61 1.29 1.69
中国豪猪 Hystrix hodgsoni 1.27 0.39 7.02 0.61 0.88
黑熊 Ursus thibetanus 1.72 0.07
豹猫 Prionailurus bengalensis 0.42 0.43 0.22
黄喉貂 Martes flavigula 1.48 0.39 2.16 5.45 1.23 1.32
黄鼬 Mustela sibirica 0.84 0.78 1.29 10.53 0.61 1.18
鼬獾 Melogale moschata 0.86 0.15
狗獾 Meles leucurus 1.23 0.15
猪獾 Arctonyx collaris 4.43 3.50 4.04 11.21 15.79 9.09 8.70 11.04 6.91
果子狸 Paguma larvata 4.22 7.78 3.03 10.34 5.26 3.64 13.04 11.04 6.83
食蟹獴 Herpestes urva 1.72 0.29
野猪 Sus scrofa 10.78 24.51 23.23 22.41 7.02 5.45 4.35 2.45 14.77
小麂 Muntiacus reevesi 33.76 19.84 28.28 17.67 35.09 50.91 52.17 25.15 27.99
黑麂 Muntiacus crinifrons 4.64 9.34 4.04 6.03 18.18 13.04 5.66
中华鬣羚 Capricornis milneedwardsii 0.21 2.72 2.02 1.29 3.64 1.23 1.25
猕猴 Macaca mulatta 1.05 3.88 12.28 1.82 34.35 5.73
藏酋猴 Macaca thibetana 27.42 3.11 12.07 6.75 13.01
华南兔 Lepus sinensis 26.26 1.91

图2

皖南及各调查区域兽类物种数与相机工作日拟合的稀疏曲线。各调查区域缩写见表1。"

[17] [徐宏发, 陆厚基, 盛和林, 顾长明 (1998) 华南梅花鹿的分布和现状. 生物多样性, 6, 87-91.]
[18] Xu YJ (1997) Discussion on the wild animal resources in Huangshan area. Journal of Huangshan University, 7(1), 1-11. (in Chinese)
[徐亚君 (1997) 黄山市野生动物资源论证. 黄山学院学报, 7(1), 1-11.]
[19] Xu YJ, Cheng BG, Fang DA, Wang L (1985) A preliminary observation on Chiroptera in Huizhou Region, Anhui Province and their overwintering ecology. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 5, 87-93. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐亚君, 程炳功, 方德安, 汪林 (1985) 安徽省徽州地区翼手类及其越冬生态的初步观察. 兽类学报, 5, 87-93.]
[20] Zhang LB, Cui SP, Huang YJ, Chen DQ, Qiao HJ, Li CW, Jiang ZG (2014) Infrared camera traps in wildlife research and monitoring in China: issues and insights. Biodiversity Science, 22, 696-703. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] Han DM, Hu XL, Gu CM, Wang BZ (1995) An investigation on leopard cat in Anhui Province. Journal of Anhui University (Natural Sciences), (4), 82-88. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[韩德民, 胡小龙, 顾长明, 王保洲 (1995) 安徽省豹猫的分布和数量. 安徽大学学报(自然科学版), (4), 82-88.]
[2] Hu XL, Han DM, Wang BZ, Gu CM (1995) The investigation on Asiatic black bear in Anhui Province. Journal of Anhui University (Natural Sciences), (2), 105-109. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[胡小龙, 韩德民, 王保洲, 顾长明 (1995) 安徽省黑熊资源调查. 安徽大学学报(自然科学版), (2), 105-109.]
[3] Huang WJ, Wen YX, Huang ZY, Mu DW, Tang ZY, Lian ZC (1978) Investigation of mammals and geographical division of Anhui. Journal of Fudan University (Natural Science), (1), 86-104. (in Chinese)
[黄文几, 温业新, 黄正一, 穆大威, 唐子英, 练作宸 (1978) 安徽省哺乳动物调查和地理区划. 复旦学报(自然科学版), (1), 86-104.]
[4] Jiang ZG, Ma Y, Wu Y, Wang YX, Feng ZJ, Zhou KY, Liu SY, Luo ZH, Li CW (2015) China’s mammalian diversity. Biodiversity Science, 23, 351-364. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[蒋志刚, 马勇, 吴毅, 王应祥, 冯祚建, 周开亚, 刘少英, 罗振华, 李春旺 (2015) 中国哺乳动物多样性. 生物多样性, 23, 351-364.]
[5] Li F, Jiang ZG (2014) Is nocturnal rhythm of Asian badger (Meles leucurus) caused by human activity? A case study in the eastern area of Qinghai Lake. Biodiversity Science, 22, 758-763. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[李峰, 蒋志刚 (2014) 狗獾夜间活动节律是受人类活动影响而形成的吗? 基于青海湖地区的研究实例. 生物多样性, 22, 758-763.]
[6] Liang RJ, Dong YW (1984) Bats from South Anhui. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 4, 321-328. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[梁仁济, 董永文 (1984) 皖南地区翼手类初步研究. 兽类学报, 4, 321-328.]
[7] Liu CS, Wu WN, Yu ZC, Meng JH, Zhang DR (1986) A study on the rodent fauna on Huangshan Mountain of Anhui Province. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 21(6), 18-21. (in Chinese)
[刘春生, 吴万能, 俞正楚, 孟冀辉, 张大荣 (1986) 安徽省黄山啮齿类区系研究. 动物学杂志, 21(6), 18-21.]
[8] Liu F, Li DQ, Wu JG (2012) Using infra-red cameras to survey wildlife in Beijing Songshan National Nature Reserve. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 32, 730-739. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘芳, 李迪强, 吴记贵 (2012) 利用红外相机调查北京松山国家级自然保护区的野生动物物种. 生态学报, 32, 730-739.]
[9] O’Brien TG, Kinnaird MF, Wibisono HT (2003) Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation, 6, 131-139.
[10] O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (2011) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, New York.
[11] Sanderson JG, Trolle M (2005) Monitoring elusive mammals: unattended cameras reveal secrets of some of the world’s wildest places. American Scientist, 93, 148-155.
[12] Wang QS (1986) The zoogeographical division of Anhui Province. Journal of Anhui University (Natural Sciences), (1), 45-58. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王岐山 (1986) 安徽动物地理区划. 安徽大学学报(自然科学版), (1), 45-58.]
[13] Wang QS (1990) The Mammal Fauna of Anhui. Anhui Science and Technology Publishing House, Hefei. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王岐山 (1990) 安徽兽类志. 安徽科学技术出版社, 合肥.]
[14] Wang QS, Chen BH, Liang RJ (1966) The pilot study on geological distribution of mammals in Anhui Province. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 8(3), 101-106. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王岐山, 陈璧辉, 梁仁济 (1966) 安徽兽类地理分布的初步研究. 动物学杂志, 8(3), 101-106.]
[15] Wang QS, Hu XL, Xing QR, Xiong CP, Lin ZX (1981) An investigation of birds and mammals of Huangshan in Anhui Province. Journal of Anhui University (Natural Sciences), (2), 138-158. (in Chinese)
[王岐山, 胡小龙, 邢庆仁, 熊成培, 林祖贤 (1981) 安徽黄山的鸟兽资源调查报告. 安徽大学学报(自然科学版), (2), 138-158.]
[16] Xiao ZS, Li XH, Jiang GS (2014) Applications of camera trapping to wildlife surveys in China. Biodiversity Science, 22, 683-684. (in Chinese)
[肖治术, 李欣海, 姜广顺 (2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测研究中的应用. 生物多样性, 22, 683-684.]
[17] Xu HF, Lu HJ, Sheng HL, Gu CM (1998) Status and current distribution of South China Sika Deer. Chinese Biodiversity, 6, 87-91. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[20] [张履冰, 崔绍朋, 黄元骏, 陈代强, 乔慧捷, 李春旺, 蒋志刚 (2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测中的应用: 问题与限制. 生物多样性, 22, 696-703.]
[1] 崔绍朋 陈代强 王金宇 孙吉舟 初红军 李春旺 蒋志刚. (2020) 新疆阿尔泰山喀纳斯河谷鸟兽物种的红外相机监测. 生物多样性, 28(4): 435-441.
[2] 池秀莲, 郭婷, 王庆刚, 景志贤, 张小波, 李晓琳, 孙楷, 王铁霖, 杨光. (2020) 华中地区国家级自然保护区对药用维管植物的就地保护现状. 生物多样性, 28(2): 135-143.
[3] 杨雄威,吴安康,邹启先,李光容,张明明,胡灿实,粟海军. (2020) 贵州麻阳河国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测. 生物多样性, 28(2): 219-225.
[4] 马亦生,马青青,何念军,朱大鹏,赵凯辉,刘红彩,李帅,孙亮,唐流斌. (2020) 基于红外相机技术调查佛坪国家级自然保护区兽类和鸟类多样性. 生物多样性, 28(2): 226-230.
[5] 张明明,杨朝辉,王丞,王娇娇,胡灿实,雷孝平,石磊,粟海军,李佳琦. (2019) 贵州梵净山国家级自然保护区鸟兽红外相机监测. 生物多样性, 27(7): 813-818.
[6] 穆君, 王娇娇, 张雷, 李云波, 李筑眉, 粟海军. (2019) 贵州习水国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测及活动节律分析. 生物多样性, 27(6): 683-688.
[7] 王渊, 李晟, 刘务林, 朱雪林, 李炳章. (2019) 西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区金猫的色型类别与活动节律. 生物多样性, 27(6): 638-647.
[8] 肖治术,陈立军,宋相金,束祖飞,肖荣高,黄小群. (2019) 基于红外相机技术对广东车八岭国家级自然保护区大中型兽类与雉类的编目清查与评估. 生物多样性, 27(3): 237-242.
[9] 陈立军,束祖飞,肖治术. (2019) 应用红外相机数据研究动物活动节律——以广东车八岭保护区鸡形目鸟类为例. 生物多样性, 27(3): 266-272.
[10] 陈强强, 李美玲, 王旭, FaisalMueenQamer, 王鹏, 杨建伟, 汪沐阳, 杨维康. (2019) 新疆塔什库尔干野生动物自然保护区马可波罗盘羊潜在生态廊道识别. 生物多样性, 27(2): 186-199.
[11] 余建平,王江月,肖慧芸,陈小南,陈声文,李晟,申小莉. (2019) 利用红外相机公里网格调查钱江源国家公园的兽类及鸟类多样性. 生物多样性, 27(12): 1339-1344.
[12] 陈惠君, 杜虎, 宋同清, 彭晚霞, 张浩, 苏樑, 曾馥平. (2019) 木论喀斯特常绿落叶阔叶混交林群丛数量分类及稳定性. 生物多样性, 27(10): 1056-1068.
[13] 邹东廷, 王庆刚, 罗奥, 王志恒. (2019) 中国蔷薇科植物多样性格局及其资源植物保护现状. 植物生态学报, 43(1): 1-15.
[14] 任鹏,余建平,陈小南,申小莉,宋虓,张田田,余永泉,丁平. (2019) 古田山国家级自然保护区白颈长尾雉的分布格局及其季节变化. 生物多样性, 27(1): 13-23.
[15] 张则瑾, 郭焱培, 贺金生, 唐志尧. (2018) 中国极小种群野生植物的保护现状评估. 生物多样性, 26(6): 572-577.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed