生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 315-325.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017235

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

中国大陆自然保护地概况及分类体系构想

彭杨靖, 樊简, 邢韶华, 崔国发*()   

  1. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-01 接受日期:2018-01-26 出版日期:2018-03-20 发布日期:2018-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 崔国发
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2015ZCQ-BH-02)

Overview and classification outlook of natural protected areas in mainland China

Yangjing Peng, Jian Fan, Shaohua Xing, Guofa Cui*()   

  1. School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2017-09-01 Accepted:2018-01-26 Online:2018-03-20 Published:2018-05-05
  • Contact: Cui Guofa
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

自1956年我国建立第一个自然保护区以来, 截至2016年底, 我国已建立了约10种类型且数量庞大的自然保护地。随着我国生态文明建设的不断发展,建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系不仅是国家提出的重要任务,也是我国自然保护地未来发展的必然趋势。然而, 由于我国目前各类自然保护地尚无统一的分类体系, 已有的自然保护地之间存在着概念界定不清、分类体系混乱、主导功能模糊、地理空间重叠等诸多问题。这不仅严重阻碍了我国现有自然保护地的优化整合和国家公园体制建设,而且不便于开展国际交流。因此迫切需要明确自然保护地的定义, 建立一套适用于我国且有利于国际交流的自然保护地分类体系。本文在介绍自然保护地的概念与内涵,以及我国10类自然保护地建设和分类体系现状的基础上,重点梳理了我国自然保护地的发展历程, 比较了各类自然保护地的定义、内涵以及主要分类依据,并提出了3种能够涵盖目前各类自然保护地的分类体系构想,它们分别基于IUCN保护区分类系统、保护对象自然属性和管理目标社会属性。希望这些构想能在未来自然保护地分类体系的研究中起到抛砖引玉的作用。

关键词: 自然保护地, 分类体系, 国家公园体制, 整合

Abstract:

By the end of 2016, China had established approximately 10 types and a large number of natural protected areas since the first nature reserve was established in 1956. With ecological civilization construction, to establish a natural protected areas system based on national parks is not only an important project put forward by the state, but also the inevitable trend for future development. However, problems including ambiguous concepts, confused classification systems, vague dominant functions, and geospatial overlap also accompanied these natural protected areas. There is still no unified classification system that can be applied in all types of natural protected areas in China, this lack of classification system has seriously impeded ongoing optimization and integration of the existing natural protected areas and the construction of a national park system and is not convenient for international academic exchanges. Therefore, defining natural protected areas is urgently needed and is essential for the establishment of a classification system that is applicable to our country and conducive to international communication. Here we mainly discuss the concepts and connotation of natural protected areas in China, tease out their development processes, and summarize the construction and classification of 10 types of natural protected areas, while comparing the similarities and differences of these concepts and classifications. Finally, based on the IUCN protected area management classification system, the natural attribution of protected objects, and social attribution of management objects, we propose three classification systems to provide a reference for establishing a natural protected area classification system and national park system. We hope these systems will play a role in the study of the classification system of natural protected areas in the future.

Key words: protected area, classification system, national park system, integration