生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 896-903.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017031

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于红外相机技术的皖南山区森林生态系统兽类资源现状

刘凯1, 贺君1, 张继辉1, 冯俊1, 宇强1, 顾长明2, 吴海龙1,*()   

  1. 1 (安徽省重要生物资源保护与利用研究重点实验室, 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 安徽芜湖 241000)
    2 (安徽省自然保护管理站, 合肥 230001)
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-07 接受日期:2017-05-12 出版日期:2017-08-20 发布日期:2017-08-31
  • 通讯作者: 吴海龙
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者 Co-first authors
  • 基金资助:
    科技部基础性工作专项(2015FY110200)和安徽省林业厅专项基金(2016FACJ2001)

Mammal resource status in the mountain forest ecosystems of southern Anhui Province based on camera trap data

Kai Liu1, Jun He1, Jihui Zhang1, Jun Feng1, Qiang Yu1, Changming Gu2, Hailong Wu1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory for the Conservation and Utilization of Important Biological Resources, Anhui Province; College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000
    2 Nature Protection and Administration Station of Anhui Province, Hefei 230001
  • Received:2017-02-07 Accepted:2017-05-12 Online:2017-08-20 Published:2017-08-31
  • Contact: Wu Hailong

摘要:

皖南山区是安徽省陆生脊椎动物资源最丰富的动物地理区域, 为获得该区域森林生态系统中兽类资源的概况, 本研究于2013年7月至2015年10月利用红外相机技术对该区8个省级以上自然保护区(或风景名胜区)的兽类资源进行调查, 并通过与文献记录进行比较, 分析该区兽类资源的变化趋势及其原因。本研究共布设了121个相机位点, 其中有效相机位点109个, 累计6,375个相机工作日, 共获得兽类有效独立照片1,361张, 鉴定兽类5目12科19种。拍摄率和相对丰富度较高的前5种依次为小麂(Muntiacus reevesi)、野猪(Sus scrofa)、藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)、赤腹松鼠(Callosciurus erythraeus)和猪獾(Arctonyx collaris), 除藏酋猴外, 其他4种以及果子狸(Paguma larvata)在皖南山区广泛分布。就所监测到的国家重点保护动物而言, 猕猴(Macaca mulatta)的相对丰富度约为藏酋猴的2/5, 黑麂(Muntiacus crinifrons)约为小麂的1/5, 黄喉貂(Martes flavigula)和中华鬣羚(Capricornis milneedwardsii)均不到黑麂的1/4, 而黑熊(Ursus thibetanus)在所监测到的兽类中相对丰富度最低。与30多年前的历史记录相比, 除黑熊外, 大中型食肉目动物无一拍摄记录, 暗示皖南山区森林生态系统中的豹(Panthera pardus)、云豹(Neofelis nebulosa)、狼(Canis lupus)等顶级捕食者已极其稀少, 或已消失, 而草食性的小麂和杂食性的野猪成为该区相对丰富度最高的前两种兽类。广义线性模型(generalized linear model)分析结果显示, 在2个月的监测时间内, 红外相机捕获的物种数与调查区域面积(z = 2.04, P = 0.04)和有效独立照片数(z = 2.10, P = 0.04)呈正相关, 而与有效相机位点数(z = 1.63, P = 0.10)以及相机工作日(z = 1.85, P = 0.06)无显著相关性。本研究结果客观地反映出皖南山区森林生态系统大中型兽类资源现状, 为后续针对国家重点保护兽类开展动态监测以及保护和管理提供了基础资料。

关键词: 红外相机技术, 自然保护区, 拍摄率, 相对丰富度, 大中型兽类

Abstract:

To examine the diversity and abundance of mammals in the mountain forest ecosystems of southern mountainous areas in Anhui Province, a total of 121 cameras were installed at eight sample plots including two national and five provincial nature reserves and the Huangshan Mountain Scenic Area between July 2013 and October 2015. In total, 6,375 trap days and 1,361 effective independent photographs were collected. 19 species belonging to 5 orders and 12 families were recorded. The first five species of photographic rate and relative abundance index were Muntiacus reevesi, Sus scrofa, Macaca thibetana, Callosciurus erythraeus, and Arctonyx collaris. Except Macaca thibetana, the other four species among the five and Paguma larvata were widely distributed in mountainous areas of south Anhui Province. For those species under special state protection, the relative abundance index of Macaca mulatta was nearly two fifths of Macaca thibetana; the relative abundance index of Muntiacus crinifrons was nearly one fifth of Muntiacus reevesi; Martes flavigula and Capricornis sumatraensis was about one fourth of Muntiacus crinifrons. The relative abundance index of Ursus thibetanus was minimal among these recorded species. Compared to historical records collected thirty years ago, Ursus thibetanus was the sole large species in Carnivora captured by camera traps in this study, which indicates that the top predators, including Panthera pardus, Neofelis nebulosa, Canis lupus and Cuon alpines, were extremely sparse or had vanished from this area. As a result, the vegetarian Muntiacus reevesi and omnivorous Sus scrofa had the highest abundance amongst those mammals in this area. Correlation analysis with generalized linear models indicated that the number of species captured by infrared cameras positively correlated with the surveyed area (z = 2.04, P = 0.04) and effective independent photographs (z = 2.10, P = 0.04), while it did not associate with effective camera sites (z = 1.63, P = 0.10) and total trap days (z = 1.85, P = 0.06). Results of this study provide baseline data for a follow-up to the dynamic monitoring, protection and management of key national protected mammals.

Key words: camera traps, nature reserve, photographic rate, relative abundance, large and medium-size mammal