生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 343-351.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09039

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蚂蚁-紫胶虫兼性互利关系对蚂蚁群落多样性的影响

卢志兴1, 2, 陈又清1, *(), 张威3, 王思铭1, 2, 李巧3   

  1. 1 中国林业科学研究院资源昆虫研究所, 昆明 650224
    2 国家林业局资源昆虫培育与利用重点实验室, 昆明 650224
    3 西南林业大学林学院, 昆明 650224
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-05 接受日期:2013-04-22 出版日期:2013-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈又清 E-mail:cyqcaf@126.com
  • 基金项目:
    林业公益性行业科研专项(201204602)和国家自然科学基金(31270561)

Effects of facultative mutualism between ants and lac insects on the diversity of ant communities

Zhixing Lu1, 2, Youqing Chen1, 2, *(), Wei Zhang3, Siming Wang1, 2, Qiao Li3   

  1. 1 Research Institute of Resources Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650224
    2 Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Utilization of Resource Insects of State Forestry Administration, Kunming 650224
    3 College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2013-02-05 Accepted:2013-04-22 Online:2013-05-20
  • Contact: Chen Youqing E-mail:cyqcaf@126.com

为了探讨蚂蚁-紫胶虫兼性互利关系对树冠上蚂蚁群落多样性的影响, 作者于2009年12月至2010年5月, 采用目光搜寻的方法调查了不同紫胶虫数量样地(样地I有效枝条寄生率为60%、样地II为30%、样地III为10%、样地IV不放养紫胶虫)中钝叶黄檀(Dalbergia obtusifolia)树冠蚂蚁群落的多样性。结果显示, 兼性互利关系能够显著提高树冠蚂蚁群落多度及物种丰富度, 改变树冠上蚂蚁的群落结构; 由紫胶虫数量高低导致的蜜露产量的多寡对树冠上蚂蚁的多度和群落结构均具有显著影响, 但对物种丰富度无显著影响; 同时紫胶虫的个体发育阶段也是影响树冠上蚂蚁多度的重要因素。本研究证明, 紫胶虫对于提高树冠上蚂蚁的多样性具有显著的正面影响, 紫胶林对蚂蚁多样性保护有利。

关键词: 兼性互利关系, 蚂蚁群落, 蜜露资源, 生物多样性, 群落结构

In order to reveal the effects of facultative mutualism between ants and lac insects on the diversity of canopy ant communities, a sight-seeking method was used to investigate ant community diversity on the tree, Dalbergia obtusifoliain different plots, with infestation rates of the lac insect, Kerria yunnanensisvarying on branches between 60%, 30%, 10% and 0%, respectively. The results showed that the facultative mutualism could increase the abundance and species richness of the canopy ant assembly, and also change the ant community structure. The amount of honeydew resulting from the presence of lac insect populations had a significant effect on the abundance of ant assembly, and on the community structure of canopy ants, but had no significant effect on ant species richness. Stage of lac insect life cycle was also an important factor affecting the abundance of canopy ants. It was concluded that lac insect cultivation can positively protect canopy ant assemblages and be beneficial to ant diversity conservation.

Key words: facultative mutualism, ant community, honeydew resources, biodiversity, community structure

表1

不同月份各样地蚂蚁常见物种组成"

样地
Sites
常见种
Common species
转换后多度百分率(%)
12月 Dec. 1月 Jan. 2月 Feb. 3月 Mar. 4月 Apr. 5月 May
I 飘细长蚁 Tetraponera allaborans <10 <10 <10 14.74 <10 21.71
粗纹举腹蚁 Crematogaster macaoensis 68.57 73.40 64.49 56.84 56.72 45.39
黑头酸臭蚁 Tapinoma melanocephalum <10 - - - 10.45 -
黑可可臭蚁 Dolichoderus thoracicus <10 <10 <10 13.68 <10 <10
II 飘细长蚁 Tetraponera allaborans <10 <10 21.51 21.95 14.53 29.91
粗纹举腹蚁 Crematogaster macaoensis 26.25 25.32 29.03 18.29 33.33 11.97
立毛举腹蚁 C. ferrarii 42.50 46.84 24.73 25.61 36.75 41.88
罗氏棒切叶蚁 Rhoptromyrmex wroughtonii 12.50 - <10 - - -
黑可可臭蚁 Dolichoderus thoracicus <10 16.46 12.90 15.85 <10 <10
光胫多刺蚁 Polyrhachis tibialis - - <10 10.98 - -
III 飘细长蚁 Tetraponera allaborans <10 10.53 16.39 28.57 16.67 34.38
粗纹举腹蚁 Crematogaster macaoensis 36.84 31.58 22.95 21.43 26.32 13.54
立毛举腹蚁 C. ferrarii 28.95 31.58 44.26 21.43 27.19 30.21
罗氏棒切叶蚁 Rhoptromyrmex wroughtonii 20.18 11.84 - - <10 -
皮氏大头蚁 Pheidole pieli - - - - 14.91 -
IV 飘细长蚁 Tetraponera allaborans 11.54 28.21 27.59 25.00 10.71 23.46
粗纹举腹蚁 Crematogaster macaoensis <10 - - 11.36 14.29 <10
立毛举腹蚁 C. ferrarii 42.31 35.90 41.38 45.45 38.10 55.56
皮氏大头蚁 Pheidole pieli - - - - 10.71 -
黑头酸臭蚁 Tapinoma melanocephalum 19.23 - - - - -
黑可可臭蚁 Dolichoderus thoracicus <10 35.90 20.69 13.64 <10 -
光胫多刺蚁 Polyrhachis tibialis 11.54 - 10.34 <10 - -

图1

基于转换后多度的物种累积曲线。图中I、II、III和IV分别代表紫胶虫寄生率为60%、30%、10%和无紫胶虫的样地。"

表2

不同样地及月份蚂蚁群落多样性指数协方差模型验证"

因子 Factor F P 偏Eta平方 Partial Eta squared
多度 Abundance 样地 Sites 26.19 0.001 0.540
月份 Months 23.43 0.001 0.259
物种丰富度 Species richness (S) 样地 Sites 5.53 0.002 0.198
月份 Months 11.60 0.001 0.148
ACE估计值 样地 Sites 4.62 0.005 0.171
月份 Months 10.81 0.002 0.139

表3

不同样地蚂蚁群落多样性比较"

样地
Sites
多度
Abundance
物种丰富度
Species richness (S)
ACE
I 6.13 ± 0.19a 1.65 ± 0.16a 1.68 ± 0.09a
II 5.56 ± 0.20b 1.63 ± 0.11a 1.66 ± 0.07a
III 5.38 ± 0.18b 1.70 ± 0.14a 1.75 ± 0.06a
IV 3.98 ± 0.24c 1.38 ± 0.09b 1.41 ± 0.07b

图2

各样地不同月份蚂蚁多度及物种丰富度。图中I、II、III和IV分别代表紫胶虫寄生率为60%、30%、10%和无紫胶虫的样地。"

图3

各样地蚂蚁群落主坐标分析。图中I、II、III和IV分别代表紫胶虫寄生率为60%、30%、10%和无紫胶虫的样地; 数字表示不同分组。"

图4

不同月份蚂蚁群落主坐标分析。图中字母L表示紫胶虫幼虫期, A表示紫胶虫成虫期, 数字表示月份。"

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