生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (4): 499-506.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08074

所属专题: 微生物多样性专辑

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国多孔菌多样性初探: 物种、区系和生态功能

周丽伟, 戴玉成*()   

  1. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 森林与土壤国家重点实验室, 沈阳 110164
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-28 接受日期:2013-06-28 出版日期:2013-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 戴玉成 E-mail:yuchengd@yahoo.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31070022)

Chinese polypore diversities: species, mycota and ecological functions

Liwei Zhou, Yucheng Dai*()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110164
  • Received:2013-03-28 Accepted:2013-06-28 Online:2013-07-20
  • Contact: Dai Yucheng E-mail:yuchengd@yahoo.com

多孔菌是指子实层体呈孔状且质地为革质至木质的一类大型担子菌, 主要生长在各类木材上。我国地域辽阔, 气候带和地形多样, 森林类型和植被组成丰富, 为多孔菌提供了丰富的栖息地。长期的野外资源调查和标本采集, 特别是近年来分子生物学技术的发展, 极大地丰富了对我国多孔菌种类的认识。我国是世界上多孔菌物种多样性最丰富的国家, 现在已知有多孔菌704种, 隶属于11目22科134属, 包括世界广布成分、北温带成分和热带-亚热带成分。多孔菌中的白腐菌是潜在的工业用菌, 褐腐菌在森林的更新过程中起重要作用。

关键词: 木材腐朽菌, 物种多样性, 真菌区系, 生态学

Polypores are the group of macro-basidiomycetes with poroid hymenophore and corky basidiocarps that mainly grow on wood. China contains multiple climatic zones and geographic topographies, and thus possesses a variety of forest and vegetation types that provide rich habitats for polypores. Based on extensive collections conducted over a long period of time, a considerable knowledge of Chinese polypore species has been obtained, and this has been enriched further in recent years by using molecular technology. China possesses the highest polypore diversity in the world and 704 polypore species, belonging to 134 genera, 22 families and 11 orders, have been recorded within its borders. These 704 species are composed of cosmopolitan, boreal/temperate and tropical-subtropical elements. White-rot polypores are considered as potential industrial resources, while brown-rot polypores play an essential role in forest renewal.

Key words: Wood-decaying fungi, species diversity, mycota, ecology

图1

不同目的多孔菌。(A)木耳目的叶榆孔菌; (B)褐褶菌目的深褐褶菌; (C)锈革孔菌目的肉桂集毛孔菌; (D)多孔菌目的血红密孔菌; (E)红菇目的无壳异担子菌; (F)糙孢孔目的袋囊糙孢孔菌。"

图2

不同营养方式的多孔菌。(A)腐生于腐朽木上的黄白变孔菌; (B)腐生于倒木上的东方栓孔菌; (C)寄生于活树上的红贝俄氏孔菌; (D)形成外生菌根的绵地花孔菌。"

图3

白腐菌、褐腐菌及其引起的木材腐朽。(A)木蹄层孔菌及其引起的白色腐朽; (B)盖波斯特孔菌及其引起的褐色腐朽。"

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