生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 359-363.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.05162

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云南省高等植物多样性与分布状况

陈丽1, 2, 董洪进2, 彭华2, *   

  1. 1 西南林业大学林学院, 昆明 650224
    2 中国科学院昆明植物研究所生物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-27 接受日期:2013-03-07 出版日期:2013-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 彭华

Diversity and distribution of higher plants in Yunnan, China

Li Chen1, 2, Hongjin Dong2, Hua Peng2, *   

  1. 1 Forestry Institute, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2 Biodiversity and Biogeography Key Laboratory of Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2012-08-27 Accepted:2013-03-07 Online:2013-05-20
  • Contact: Peng Hua

云南省为我国乃至世界生物多样性的热点区域之一。为深入认识和保护云南的植物多样性, 作者以《云南植物志》为基础, 对其中记载的各物种在云南的县级分布情况进行了统计。结果显示: 云南省高等植物多样性最丰富的为滇西北地区, 其中的玉龙县、贡山县、香格里拉县物种数分别高达4,358种、3,981种和3,874种, 其次为以西双版纳州为主体的南部热带边缘, 其中的勐腊、景洪的物种数也都在3,000种以上; 而以云南高原为主体的滇东和滇中地区植物多样性则较为贫乏, 作者认为这与人们的关注度和野外调查的强度直接相关。云南分布有4,008种特有物种, 4,509种狭域物种, 特有物种的分布规律与总物种相似; 含狭域物种最多的为贡山县(556种), 是唯一超过500种的县。云南省多数物种的分布范围极为狭窄, 64.1%的物种仅分布在1-5个县, 46.0%的特有物种只分布在1个县的范围内。通过以上分析, 作者指出由于此前对云南植物多样性的调查仍不完善, 结果并不能全面反映真实的地带性规律, 建议加大调查深度和标本采集量。如果条件许可, 一些极易沦为濒危种的狭域分布种也应得到优先关注。

关键词: 植物多样性, 特有种, 狭域分布种, 标本, 分布格局

Yunnan Province is a biodiversity hotspot in China that has global significance. In order to further recognize and protect the biodiversity of Yunnan, we examined the basic distributional pattern of its plant diversity based on Flora Yunnanica. According to our analysis, Northwest Yunnan had the highest plant diversity, with Yulong County the most diverse, containing 4,358 species of higher plants, followed by Gongshan County and Xianggelila County, which had 3,981 and 3,874 higher plants respectively. The tropical edge region of southern Yunnan, represented by Xishuangbanna, had the second highest level of diversity, with Mengla County and Jinghong County containing more than 3,000 higher plant species. In contrast, the plant diversity of Eastern and Central Yunnan, comprising mainly the Yunnan Plateau, was deemed relatively poor, possibly reflecting lower attention and field surveys by botanists. Both the distribution patterns of endemic and narrow-ranging species were similar to that for all plants. Yunnan contains 4,008 endemic and 4,509 narrow-ranging species with Gongshan County being most diverse, having more than 500 narrow-ranging species. Most species (64.1%) were distributed in less than five counties in Yunnan, and 46.0% could only be found in one. Our analysis reveals that previous field surveys of Yunnan’s plant diversity did not fully reflect the natural zonal regularity and consequently further investigation is warranted. Some narrow-ranging species will be endangered without protection.

Key words: plant diversity, endemic species, narrow-ranging species, specimen, distributional pattern

图1

云南省各县高等植物(A)、特有植物(B)和狭域分布物种(C)的多样性分布格局"

表1

云南省高等植物物种数和特有物种数与其分布的县数之间的相关性"

分布县数
No. of
counties
物种数
No. of
species
分布县数
No. of
counties
特有种数
No. of endemic species
0 169 0 14
1 4,509 1 1,845
2-5 7,257 2 699
6-10 3,016 3 456
11-20 1,801 4-5 455
21-30 543 6-10 347
31-40 201 11-20 114
41-50 111 21-30 53
51-60 53 31-40 14
61-80 51 41-50 6
81-100 14 >50 5
101-120 54
121-129 534

附录I

云南省特有植物/高等植物分县统计"

序号No.
County
苔藓植物Bryophytes 蕨类植物Ferns 裸子植物Gymnosperms 被子植物Angiosperms

Family

Genus
种Species
Family

Genus

Species

Family

Genus

Species

Family

Genus

Species
1 五华区 5/56 6/139 7/286 7/39 9/86 9/192 1/8 1/21 1/43 57/173 122/887 165/2194
2 盘龙区 5/56 6/143 7/292 7/39 9/86 9/193 1/8 1/21 1/43 57/177 121/895 166/2172
3 官渡区 5/56 6/139 7/286 7/39 9/86 9/193 1/8 1/21 1/43 56/174 120/884 162/2144
4 西山区 7/58 7/150 8/315 7/39 10/86 10/194 1/8 1/21 1/43 57/176 123/885 167/2150
5 东川区 1/20 1/30 1/37 0/25 0/29 0/44 1/9 1/20 1/33 39/157 62/616 88/1203
6 安宁市 2/34 2/70 2/108 1/27 1/40 1/65 0/5 0/11 0/16 19/147 22/520 23/846
7 富民县 1/21 1/32 1/37 0/26 0/41 0/66 0/6 0/11 0/15 40/154 49/591 52/1021
8 呈贡县 2/14 2/29 2/39 0/22 0/29 0/42 0/5 0/10 0/13 15/138 18/467 19/747
9 晋宁县 1/12 1/18 1/21 0/21 0/27 0/39 0/5 0/10 0/13 16/139 19/464 20/737
10 宜良县 1/20 1/28 1/31 2/26 2/38 2/57 0/5 0/11 0/13 21/145 25/499 27/813
11 石林县 1/19 1/33 1/43 2/26 2/37 2/59 0/5 0/10 0/14 23/146 29/513 31/820
12 嵩明县 1/35 1/67 1/103 2/29 2/53 2/95 0/5 0/13 0/17 44/160 66/621 78/1150
13 禄劝县 2/25 2/46 2/67 5/35 5/74 5/185 1/7 1/17 1/26 54/169 84/720 110/1440
14 寻甸县 2/26 2/39 2/62 0/22 0/26 0/37 0/5 0/11 0/14 24/144 30/505 32/827
15 麒麟区 0/13 0/15 0/16 0/23 0/27 0/33 0/3 0/3 0/4 7/127 8/418 9/621
16 马龙县 1/11 1/13 1/14 0/21 0/25 0/34 0/3 0/3 0/4 3/122 3/393 3/586
17 陆良县 0/12 0/15 0/16 0/20 0/24 0/33 0/3 0/3 0/4 3/118 3/395 3/597
18 师宗县 0/15 0/24 0/28 0/25 0/27 0/38 0/3 0/3 0/4 9/134 9/481 9/734
19 罗平县 0/14 0/16 0/17 2/28 2/42 2/62 0/3 0/3 0/4 7/131 9/482 9/734
20 富源县 0/11 0/13 0/14 0/21 0/26 0/35 0/3 0/3 0/4 5/120 5/400 5/604
21 宣威市 0/11 0/13 0/15 0/25 0/37 0/51 0/4 0/4 0/5 4/121 4/399 4/591
22 沾益县 0/11 0/13 0/14 0/20 0/29 0/38 0/3 0/3 0/4 4/123 4/398 4/597
23 会泽县 0/12 0/14 0/15 1/27 1/42 1/67 0/5 0/5 0/8 24/141 38/513 42/867
24 红塔区 0/11 0/13 0/14 0/21 0/28 0/41 1/4 1/4 1/5 15/134 16/461 16/701
25 江川县 0/10 0/13 0/15 0/21 0/27 0/36 0/3 0/3 0/4 7/129 8/452 8/713
26 澄江县 0/11 0/13 0/14 0/27 0/43 0/71 0/3 0/3 0/4 11/123 16/486 17/712
27 华宁县 0/11 0/14 0/13 0/21 0/27 0/36 0/3 0/3 0/4 4/118 4/410 4/601
28 通海县 0/19 0/18 0/20 0/24 0/36 0/51 0/3 0/3 0/4 8/127 8/414 8/622
29 峨山县 0/10 0/12 0/14 1/29 1/45 1/60 0/4 0/4 0/5 23/139 28/542 29/856
30 元江县 0/16 0/18 0/20 0/27 0/37 0/60 0/5 0/5 0/6 39/145 55/634 65/1066
31 新平县 0/18 0/25 0/25 7/39 12/90 14/209 1/4 1/4 1/5 29/139 33/503 37/756
32 易门县 0/11 0/13 0/14 1/29 1/50 1/78 0/4 0/5 0/6 19/132 24/480 27/756
33 昭阳区 0/30 0/43 0/53 0/21 0/31 0/45 0/6 0/6 0/7 30/144 36/553 48/963
34 鲁甸县 0/10 0/12 0/13 0/23 0/30 0/44 0/3 0/3 0/4 19/126 22/425 31/696
35 巧家县 0/22 0/33 0/38 4/31 4/59 4/134 1/4 1/4 1/5 32/145 48/566 74/1047
36 彝良县 0/46 0/76 0/125 1/25 1/75 1/75 0/4 0/4 0/5 26/151 33/561 47/1033
37 大关县 0/35 0/57 0/87 2/39 3/89 3/192 0/3 0/3 0/4 32/149 36/559 53/1020
38 永善县 0/24 0/35 0/45 2/29 2/51 2/100 0/3 0/3 0/4 25/136 29/488 45/861
39 绥江县 0/11 0/14 0/15 4/38 6/93 6/196 0/3 0/3 0/4 24/140 27/505 38/869
40 水富县 0/11 0/12 0/13 0/22 0/28 0/41 0/3 0/3 0/4 17/125 19/419 28/680
41 盐津县 0/11 0/13 0/14 0/22 0/29 0/42 0/3 0/3 0/4 28/144 34/515 52/898
42 威信县 0/11 0/13 0/14 0/24 0/33 0/54 0/4 0/5 0/8 23/134 26/455 35/762
43 镇雄县 0/21 0/27 0/32 1/27 1/41 1/78 0/7 0/7 0/10 36/151 41/581 58/1120
44 思茅区 0/23 0/31 0/39 2/31 2/49 2/73 0/6 0/7 0/11 66/174 120/836 161/1687
45 宁洱县 0/16 0/26 0/26 1/21 1/29 1/42 0/5 0/6 0/9 21/148 32/595 45/986
46 江城县 0/14 0/17 0/18 0/27 0/44 0/63 0/4 0/4 0/5 28/143 34/535 42/881
47 墨江县 0/15 0/18 0/19 0/28 0/45 0/69 0/4 0/4 0/5 23/141 31/528 39/872
48 镇沅县 0/15 0/18 0/19 2/28 2/45 2/69 0/4 0/4 0/5 22/141 28/528 38/872
49 景东县 1/42 1/79 1/135 10/46 18/103 23/256 1/8 1/11 2/18 87/186 172/981 292/2297
50 景谷县 0/13 0/16 0/17 0/22 0/30 0/42 0/4 0/4 0/5 22/141 31/536 42/878
51 澜沧县 0/15 0/19 0/22 2/28 2/47 2/71 2/5 2/7 4/11 47/156 67/677 89/1192
52 孟连县 0/12 0/14 0/15 2/32 2/61 2/95 0/4 0/4 0/5 35/164 53/685 67/1175
53 西盟县 0/11 0/13 0/14 3/31 3/55 3/91 0/4 0/4 0/5 23/142 30/539 38/876
54 临翔区 0/14 0/19 0/22 2/29 2/43 2/60 1/6 1/8 2/12 51/161 79/713 104/1332
55 云县 0/13 0/16 0/17 1/23 1/35 1/48 0/4 0/4 0/5 22/139 27/498 29/786
56 凤庆县 0/16 0/20 0/21 0/24 0/32 0/46 0/5 0/7 0/9 54/166 84/679 109/1260
57 永德县 0/12 0/18 0/23 5/37 5/77 6/149 0/4 0/4 0/5 26/135 33/498 39/810
58 镇康县 0/17 0/25 0/32 5/31 5/47 6/74 0/6 0/7 0/10 26/162 33/728 39/1348
59 耿马县 1/28 2/46 2/64 2/28 2/45 3/82 0/5 0/5 0/7 49/156 65/676 77/1185
60 双江县 0/11 0/16 0/17 0/25 0/40 0/56 0/5 0/5 0/6 39/152 50/624 61/1066
61 沧源县 2/29 2/57 2/102 3/34 3/68 3/127 0/4 0/4 0/5 46/156 64/660 83/1165
62 隆阳区 0/32 0/49 0/56 0/24 0/34 0/48 0/3 0/3 0/4 30/145 40/529 49/884
63 腾冲县 2/43 2/84 2/179 4/40 6/72 6/123 1/7 1/9 1/12 59/169 124/751 181/1534
64 龙陵县 0/12 0/14 0/15 1/26 2/35 2/50 1/6 1/7 2/11 55/152 78/587 100/1044
65 施甸县 0/10 0/13 0/14 0/20 0/27 0/36 0/3 0/3 0/4 12/125 18/412 20/644
66 昌宁县 0/12 0/15 0/17 0/23 0/30 0/39 0/5 0/5 0/6 14/125 20/422 22/657
67 古城区 8/64 11/174 11/414 4/33 5/69 9/197 2/9 2/20 3/38 80/179 191/919 440/3124
68 玉龙县 11/69 15/202 15/481 5/34 8/72 12/222 2/9 2/20 3/37 81/179 229/974 549/3618
69 永胜县 0/30 0/52 0/85 3/21 3/26 3/45 0/5 0/7 0/9 42/149 69/625 95/1232
70 华坪县 0/21 0/39 0/68 2/18 2/21 2/35 0/5 0/7 0/11 24/137 32/492 45/922
71 宁蒗县 1/26 1/43 1/73 1/20 1/26 1/42 0/7 0/10 0/14 47/153 73/590 103/1248
72 文山县 0/21 0/27 0/34 5/35 6/69 7/131 0/8 0/11 0/15 69/179 123/837 164/1821
73 砚山县 0/10 0/12 0/13 1/31 1/52 1/87 0/5 0/7 0/8 47/164 93/764 110/1483
74 丘北县 1/38 1/55 1/85 0/28 0/39 0/56 0/5 0/5 0/6 23/145 40/564 51/1002
75 广南县 0/12 0/14 0/15 4/42 5/103 6/239 0/7 0/8 0/13 48/164 82/711 109/1402
76 富宁县 0/12 0/15 0/16 0/28 0/43 0/74 0/8 0/10 0/17 67/178 119/892 141/1922
77 西畴县 0/18 0/23 0/27 14/45 19/111 23/271 3/9 3/13 4/21 81/183 175/916 259/2193
78 麻粟坡县 0/11 0/13 0/14 11/41 15/98 20/243 1/9 1/13 1/21 72/181 165/890 262/2057
79 马关县 0/16 0/18 0/23 10/42 14/104 19/261 0/8 0/9 0/13 53/169 95/739 140/1465
80 个旧市 0/12 0/15 0/17 0/26 0/40 0/53 0/4 0/4 0/5 20/142 39/555 52/993
81 蒙自县 0/13 0/18 0/19 6/33 8/62 8/123 0/6 0/8 0/11 72/169 163/907 210/1908
82 开远市 0/12 0/15 0/17 0/23 0/32 0/45 0/4 0/4 0/5 24/143 42/556 51/986
83 弥勒县 0/11 0/14 0/15 1/29 1/56 1/94 0/4 0/4 0/5 22/140 42/552 54/974
84 泸西县 0/10 0/12 0/13 0/21 0/30 0/42 0/4 0/4 0/5 17/137 35/537 44/960
85 金平县 0/24 0/35 0/46 14/49 23/122 28/351 1/6 1/7 2/13 75/189 151/907 226/2014
86 屏边县 0/27 0/45 0/80 13/44 15/98 18/225 1/9 1/11 2/19 91/195 208/1022 355/2565
87 建水县 0/12 0/14 0/15 0/23 0/33 0/46 0/4 0/4 0/5 30/144 56/603 69/1094
88 石屏县 0/11 0/13 0/14 0/24 0/38 0/53 0/5 0/5 0/6 31/146 53/606 67/1103
89 红河县 0/20 0/26 0/44 0/21 0/30 0/42 0/4 0/4 0/7 28/141 47/582 58/1047
90 元阳县 1/31 1/64 1/100 5/38 8/92 11/210 0/4 0/5 0/6 34/154 60/669 76/1241
91 绿春县 1/39 1/86 1/170 7/38 8/92 8/189 0/4 0/4 0/5 48/164 87/754 119/1482
92 河口县 0/43 0/79 0/131 11/44 14/91 21/252 1/5 1/5 1/9 67/183 135/937 182/1939
93 景洪市 0/61 0/128 0/239 7/48 10/95 12/228 1/8 1/9 2/16 82/197 195/1212 286/2931
94 勐腊县 2/59 2/135 2/286 8/44 9/90 11/205 0/7 0/8 0/13 86/199 194/1225 300/2952
95 勐海县 0/58 0/116 0/224 5/39 6/75 7/155 1/8 1/9 2/14 80/193 167/1131 233/2603
96 楚雄市 1/16 1/31 1/39 0/26 0/38 0/59 0/4 0/5 0/8 30/143 40/544 47/945
97 禄丰县 1/12 1/19 1/22 0/29 0/50 0/83 0/5 0/6 0/9 23/137 28/494 30/836
98 武定县 1/20 1/30 1/39 0/30 0/52 0/93 0/5 0/6 0/9 19/142 23/505 25/854
99 元谋县 1/13 1/21 1/24 5/24 8/30 11/48 0/4 0/5 0/8 34/139 60/520 76/880
100 永仁县 1/14 1/21 1/24 2/26 2/47 2/84 0/5 0/5 0/9 23/136 25/473 26/784
101 大姚县 3/20 3/32 3/39 4/32 4/60 4/125 0/4 0/5 0/8 38/153 57/583 73/1041
102 姚安县 1/13 1/20 1/23 0/21 0/26 0/38 0/4 0/5 0/8 17/132 18/453 19/753
103 牟定县 1/13 1/20 1/23 0/21 0/26 0/38 0/4 0/5 0/8 16/129 17/440 18/723
104 南华县 1/14 1/21 1/24 0/22 0/29 0/42 0/4 0/8 0/8 19/130 20/445 23/734
105 双柏县 1/14 1/21 1/24 5/38 8/79 9/150 0/5 0/6 0/10 44/150 52/561 61/983
106 大理市 3/41 3/119 3/211 8/33 9/72 10/177 1/6 1/11 1/16 67/177 158/860 313/2308
107 漾濞县 0/30 0/47 0/64 8/41 11/93 13/220 0/5 0/7 0/8 51/158 84/682 124/1378
108 祥云县 0/11 0/14 0/15 0/21 0/29 0/41 0/3 0/3 0/4 15/134 24/460 28/746
109 宾川县 0/27 0/66 0/95 3/28 3/56 3/107 0/5 0/7 0/8 50/157 80/633 117/1202
110 洱源县 0/14 0/17 0/20 4/27 5/41 5/93 0/5 0/8 0/9 49/164 110/716 170/1560
111 鹤庆县 0/21 0/28 0/35 2/29 2/50 2/122 0/8 0/11 0/17 53/161 122/757 210/1767
112 剑川县 0/17 0/21 0/25 0/22 0/30 0/46 0/5 0/8 0/9 34/154 45/554 60/1050
113 云龙县 0/13 0/17 0/19 1/22 1/32 1/56 0/7 0/9 0/13 21/142 31/473 36/791
114 永平县 0/19 0/27 0/38 1/23 1/33 1/47 0/4 0/4 0/5 21/142 29/492 33/799
115 巍山县 0/12 0/15 0/16 0/21 0/30 0/42 0/4 0/4 0/5 20/143 36/475 40/828
116 南涧县 0/14 0/17 0/19 0/22 0/30 0/43 0/3 0/3 0/4 16/135 23/461 25/736
117 弥渡县 0/15 0/15 0/15 0/24 0/33 0/47 0/3 0/3 0/4 14/133 22/455 26/737
118 潞西市 0/11 0/14 0/15 0/24 0/34 0/47 0/3 0/3 0/4 38/133 57/455 68/737
119 瑞丽市 1/29 1/54 1/78 1/30 1/50 1/76 1/4 1/4 2/6 36/160 55/625 69/1048
120 陇川县 0/12 0/15 0/16 0/24 0/32 0/42 0/3 0/3 0/4 28/138 37/513 41/834
121 盈江县 0/18 0/28 0/41 3/42 4/82 4/178 0/5 0/5 0/6 42/158 61/642 81/1125
122 梁河县 0/14 0/17 0/22 0/24 0/32 0/41 0/3 0/3 0/4 22/137 31/514 33/826
123 泸水县 2/38 2/64 2/87 9/41 13/100 18/241 1/5 1/6 2/8 53/156 86/673 126/1344
124 兰坪县 1/18 1/21 1/24 0/27 0/42 0/72 2/5 2/8 2/9 33/137 44/536 54/944
125 福贡县 3/50 3/121 3/258 6/39 9/84 11/209 1/5 1/9 2/13 54/156 111/690 180/1593
126 贡山县 10/78 12/253 12/724 12/46 28/124 49/412 2/7 2/14 3/23 82/177 189/873 419/2821
127 香格里拉县 4/51 4/155 4/316 3/29 4/54 5/166 2/7 2/14 3/31 70/169 188/893 453/3361
128 维西县 5/59 5/152 5/328 3/28 6/57 11/175 2/8 2/17 3/31 65/164 149/821 310/2480
129 德钦县 4/64 4/155 5/312 8/27 11/56 12/179 1/7 1/16 1/33 67/159 151/826 356/2988
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