生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (6): 779-783.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.05070

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《遗传资源获取与惠益分享的名古屋议定书》遵约机制的谈判进展与对策

徐靖1, 2, 李俊生2, 薛达元1*   

  1. 1中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    2中国环境科学研究院环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-09 修回日期:2012-04-27 出版日期:2012-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元 E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com;xuedayuan@gmail.com;

Negotiation progress of the Nagoya Protocol on the access of genetic resources and benefit-sharing and countermeasures

Jing Xu1, 2, Junsheng Li2, Dayuan Xue1*   

  1. 1College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Mingzu University of China, Beijing 100081

    2State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2012-03-09 Revised:2012-04-27 Online:2012-11-20
  • Contact: Dayuan Xue E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com;xuedayuan@gmail.com;

《名古屋议定书》通过后, 建立国际层面的遵约机制成为利益相关方的关注焦点。遗传资源使用国和提供国根据本国立场, 提出了《名古屋议定书》遵约机制的要点和备选办法, 并进行了讨论和磋商。现有谈判进程表明, 双方在遵约机制的目标、性质、机构设置及促进遵约和解决不遵约情事的措施等重点问题上存在差异。本文在梳理谈判进程的基础上, 分析了遗传资源使用国和提供国针对遵约机制关键要点提出的备选办法, 包括遵约机制是否具有法律约束力, 是否强调共同但有区别责任原则, 是否建立常设的、具有较强监测和审查功能的遵约委员会, 以及是否为不遵约情事制定惩罚性措施等。分析了遵约机制谈判的前景, 认为遵约机制的强制力将成为下一轮谈判的核心问题。该问题决定着《名古屋议定书》的影响力, 但相应争端的解决最终仍有赖于缔约方国内立法。最后, 本文基于我国遗传资源国内立法现状, 从以下3个方面提出了我国的应对措施建议: (1)制订遗传资源专门法律, 健全相应法律体系; (2)明确遗传资源监管范围, 堵住遗传资源流失渠道; (3)规范我国利用他国遗传资源的相关活动。

The establishment of compliance mechanisms at the international level becomes the focus of stakeholders after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol. The user and provider countries raise the elements and options on compliance mechanisms of the Nagoya Protocol according to the countries’ positions. Current negotiation processes indicate the differences on key issues of objectives, nature, compliance body settings, and the measures to promote compliance and address cases of non-compliance. This article analyzes options for core elements of compliance mechanisms raised by the user and provider countries, including whether mechanisms will be binding, common but differentiated principle will be stressed, a standing compliance committee with a strong monitor and review function will be established, and punitive measures for non-compliance will be established. Negotiation prospects point out that the mandatory nature of the compliance mechanism will be the core issue of the next round of negotiations. However, the settlement of disputes is ultimately dependent on the domestic legislation of parties. Finally, we provide three proposed countermeasures as follows: (1) elaborating special laws of genetic resources and improving relevant legal systems; (2) clarifying the supervising role in the scope of genetic resources and block the loss of genetic resource channels; and (3) regulating the utilization activities of other countries’ genetic resources.

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