生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1292-1299.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020056

• 论坛 • 上一篇    

《名古屋议定书》在微生物领域的实施: 影响、最佳做法及我国立法选择

张小勇*()   

  1. 中国社会科学院大学法学院, 北京 102488
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-24 接受日期:2020-04-27 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 张小勇
  • 作者简介:E-mail: zhang.xy@cass.org.cn

Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in microbial research: Impact, best practices, and China’s legislative options

Xiaoyong Zhang*()   

  1. School of Law, University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 102488
  • Received:2020-02-24 Accepted:2020-04-27 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Xiaoyong Zhang

摘要:

《名古屋议定书》继承了《生物多样性公约》在规范遗传资源的获取和惠益分享问题上采取的双边路径。但是, 这一路径不能完全按照《生物多样性公约》和《名古屋议定书》预设的前提和模式在微生物领域得到实施, 已有的旨在实施《名古屋议定书》的措施对微生物研究和开发活动产生了消极的影响。世界微生物菌种保藏联合会致力于推动《生物多样性公约》及其《名古屋议定书》在微生物领域的有效实施, 并为此制定了相关的行为守则和准则。2016年世界微生物菌种保藏联合会推出的TRUST准则代表了微生物领域的获取和惠益分享最佳做法, 该准则针对微生物遗传资源的原生境获取、保藏、非原生境获取以及惠益分享等问题提出了一系列务实的建议。为了实施《名古屋议定书》, 我国启动了遗传资源的获取和惠益分享立法进程, 当前立法已经进入到一个关键阶段。TRUST准则对我国遗传资源的获取和惠益分享立法具有重要的启示。立法机关可以借鉴TRUST准则提出的受规制活动类型及相对应的建议, 并结合我国国情构建一套适用于微生物遗传资源的获取和惠益分享法律规则。这套法律规则将由对植物、动物和微生物遗传资源都予以适用的法律规则和仅对微生物遗传资源适用的法律规则构成, 后者可被纳入我国获取和惠益分享立法的实施细则之中。

关键词: 微生物遗传资源, 《名古屋议定书》, 获取和惠益分享, 菌种保藏库, TRUST准则

Abstract

Following the steps of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Nagoya Protocol (NP) continues to adopt a bilateral approach to regulate access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing (ABS). The approach cannot be implemented wholly in accordance with the premise and model that the CBD has presupposed. The measures being taken to implement the NP have negatively impacted microbial research and development activities. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) has dedicated its work to promoting the effective implementation of the CBD and the NP in microbial research, and formulated relevant code of conduct and guidelines for this purpose. In 2016, the WFCC published the TRUST Guidelines that represent sector specific ABS best practices. The TRUST Guidelines provide a range of pragmatic recommendations for in situ and ex situ access to MGRs, depositing MGRs, and benefit-sharing. In order to implement the NP, China has initiated the ABS legislative process, and the current legislation process has entered into a critical phase. The TRUST Guidelines have significant benefits for China’s ABS legislation. The legislative body may draw on different types of regulated activities and corresponding recommendations put forward by the TRUST Guidelines. Based on actual circumstances in China, the legislative body should build a set of legal rules applicable to accessing microbial genetic resources and benefit-sharing. This set of legal rules will be comprised of two groups: legal rules applicable to plant, animal and microbial genetic resources and legal rules specifically applicable to microbial genetic resources. It should be noted that the latter may be incorporated into the detailed rules for the implementation of the ABS legislation

Key words: microbial genetic resources, the Nagoya Protocol, access and benefit-sharing, culture collections, the TRUST Guidelines