生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 676-684.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.09126

所属专题: 中国的海洋生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国海洋大型底栖生物多样性研究及展望: 以黄海为例

李新正*   

  1. 中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东青岛 266071
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-29 修回日期:2011-12-15 出版日期:2011-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 李新正 E-mail:lixzh@qdio.ac.cn

An overview of studies on marine macrobenthic biodiversity from Chinese waters: principally from the Yellow Sea

Xinzheng Li*   

  1. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
  • Received:2011-07-29 Revised:2011-12-15 Online:2011-11-20
  • Contact: Xinzheng Li E-mail:lixzh@qdio.ac.cn

本文综述了我国海洋大型底栖生物生态学和生物多样性研究进展, 指出在该领域已有的研究中以胶州湾、长江口、福建和浙江沿岸等海域研究较多, 其他海域还需要加强。介绍了常规大型底栖生物群落研究(包括种类组成、栖息密度(丰度)、生物量、生物多样性、次级生产力、能量级等)中的研究方法, 环境变化、环境污染、海洋工程建设等对大型底栖生物的影响等方面的主要研究成果和进展, 并重点以黄海为例, 列举了已有的主要调查项目和研究成果。我国已有的研究表明, 渤海海域底栖动物区系简单, 大型底栖生物共413种, 种数在四个海区中最少, 优势种主要是低温、广盐暖水种; 年总平均生物量为19.83 g/m2, 以软体动物占有绝对优势; 年总平均栖息密度474个/m2, 多毛类和软体动物为主要贡献类群。黄海大型底栖生物共853种, 优势种为狭盐性北温带种; 北黄海年总平均生物量为99.66 g/m2, 以棘皮动物最高; 南黄海年总平均生物量为27.69 g/m2, 多毛类贡献量最高; 北黄 海年总平均密度为2,017.40个/m2, 而南黄海只有88.67个/m2差异较大; 北黄海大型底栖生物的总平均密度和生物量远高于其他海域。南黄海年平均次级生产力为4.98 g(去灰干重)/m2, 两个高生产力区位于黄海冷水团两侧。东海共发现大型底栖生物1,300种, 主要优势种类有45种, 与黄海优势种生物之间有很大差别; 东海平均生物量的季节变化不显著, 基本趋势为春季>冬季>夏季>秋季; 东海各海域的年总平均生物量浙江海域(28.22 g/m2)>长江口海域(15.55 g/m2) >台湾海峡(8.98 g/m2); 年总平均栖息密度为164个/m2, 呈现由北向南逐渐增加的趋势。南海大型底栖生物共发现1,661种, 明显高于渤、黄、东海, 部分优势种类与东海相同, 与黄海、渤海差别较大; 年总平均生物量为20.06 g/m2, 基本趋势为春季>冬季>秋季>夏季, 软体动物和棘皮动物为主要贡献类群; 年总平均栖息密度为198个/m2, 夏季>春季>冬季>秋季, 多毛类生物为主要贡献者。指出随着人类活动和全球气候变化对海洋环境的影响越来越剧烈, 对海洋生物资源和生物多样性的保护显得尤为急迫, 而对海洋大型底栖生物长期的变化规律、变化机理、未来变化趋势预测的研究, 是探究海洋大型底栖生物生态服务功能, 提出资源有效保护和合理开发建议, 使之永续利用的基础和迫切任务。

The progress on the studies of marine macrobenthic biodiversity from Chinese waters with a focus on the Yellow Sea is summarized in the present paper, with discussions of achievements in the fields of species composition, individual consistency, biomass, biodiversity, secondary productivity, macrobenthic community energy levels, and the introductions of research methods, impacts of environmental change and pollution. To date, Jiaozhou Bay, Changjiang Estuary, and the Fujian and Zhejiang coastal zones are the most intensively studied regions. The seminal research projects on macrobenthic ecology and biodiversity within the study region are also listed. In conclusion of the studies of macrobenthic ecology and biodiversity in China seas, the macrobenthic fauna from the Bohai Bay is the most simple. A total of 413 macrobenthic species have been found in this gulf, the common or dominant species are usually the hypothermal, euryhalinous warm water species; the annual mean biomass is 19.83 g/m2, the Mollusca is the main contributing group to the biomass; the annual mean density is 474 inds./m2, the Polychaeta and Mollusca are the two main contributing groups to the density. In the Yellow Sea, 853 macrobenthic species have been found. The common or dominant species are stenohaline warm water species; the annual mean biomass from the northern Yellow Sea is 99.66 g/m2, the Echinodermata is the main contributing group to the biomass, the annual mean biomass from the southern Yellow Sea is 27.69 g/m2, which is much lower than that from the northern Yellow Sea, the Polychaeta is the main contributor; the annual mean density from the northern Yellow Sea is 2,017.40 inds./m2, that from the southern Yellow Sea is only 88.67 inds./m2. In fact, the mean density and biomass from the northern Yellow Sea is much higher than those from other areas in China seas; the annual mean secondary productivity from the southern Yellow Sea is 4.98  (AFDW)/m2, the two high areas of secondary productivity are located in the two sides of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass. In the East China Sea, there have been found 1,300 macrobenthic species, in which, 45 are common or dominant ones; the differences among the seasonal mean biomasses are indistinct, usually spring>winter>summer>autumn; the annual mean biomasses from area off Zhejiang Province(28.22 g/m2)>Changjiang Estuary area (15.55 g/m2) >Taiwan Strait (8.98 g/m2), the annual mean density from the East China Sea is 164 inds./m2, the trend of the density is higher and higher from north to south areas. In the South China Sea, 1,661 macrobenthic species, distinctly more than those from the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and East China Sea, part of dominant species are the same as those from the East China Sea, very different from those from the Bohai Gulf and the Yellow Sea; the annual mean biomass is 20.06 g/m2, usually the seasonal biomasses are spring>winter>autumn>summer, the Mollusca and Echinodermata are the two main contributing groups to the biomass; the annual mean density is 198 ind./m2, usually the seasonal densities are summer>spring>winter>autumn, the Polychaeta is the main contributor to the density. The main themes of this research are ever-increasing impacts from human activities and global climate change, and the pressing need for conservation of marine biological resources. The conservation and sustained  utilization of marine biological resources need the understanding of the changing mechanisms of marine macrobenthic biodiversity based on the approach of long-term change of marine environment.

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