生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (6): 578-585.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08195

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

喜旱莲子草在中国的入侵和扩散动态及其潜在分布区预测

陈立立, 余岩, 何兴金*   

  1. (四川大学生命科学学院, 成都 610064)
  • 出版日期:2008-11-20 发布日期:2008-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 何兴金

Historical invasion and expansion process of Alternanthera philoxeroides and its potential spread in China

Lili Chen, Yan Yu, Xingjin He*   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
  • Online:2008-11-20 Published:2008-11-20
  • Contact: Xingjin He

摘要: 喜旱莲子草(Alternanthera philoxeroides)是苋科莲子草属的一种多年生草本植物, 原产于南美洲, 19世纪末侵入我国以后, 经过50年左右的停滞期, 在我国中部和南部的广大区域迅速蔓延传播, 已成为我国分布最广、危害最为严重的杂草之一, 目前分布范围仍在扩大。本研究基于大量的标本分布数据, 使用生态位模型(GARP)对其在中国的潜在扩散区域进行了预测。结果表明: 喜旱莲子草抗逆性较强, 坡度、汇流累积量、年均温、年降雨量对其分布影响较大; 而海拔、日照等对其分布影响较小。目前, 喜旱莲子草的潜在入侵区仍大于实际分布区, 因此, 预测该物种还将会继续扩散。容易被入侵的地区包括了除青海、西藏、四川西部、新疆南部、甘肃西部、吉林、黑龙江、内蒙古北部以及海南以外的中国大部分地区, 其中陕西、山西以及甘肃东南部不仅属于最易被入侵的地区, 且邻近地区已被入侵, 因此应采取紧急措施防止喜旱莲子草侵入和扩散。

关键词: Ficus curtipes, 互利共生, 榕小蜂, 繁殖策略, Walkerella sp.

Abstract: Alternanthera philoxeroides is a perennial herbaceous amphibious aquatic weed of the family Amaranthaceae, native to South America. It was first found in Shanghai, China in 1892. After a stagnant phase of 50 years (1890s–1940s), A. philoxeroides spread rapidly throughout areas of central and southern China, and the range is still expanding. It is one of the most harmful and widely distributed alien species in mainland China. We applied Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production (GARP) ecological niche modeling to predict the species’ potential range in China on the basis of occurrence points within colonized areas where A. philoxeroides had reached equilibrium. Environmental factors such as slope, flow accumulation, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation greatly influenced the size of A. philoxeroides’s potential range, while parameters such as solar radiation and elevation had little impact. Areas that we predict to have poten-tial for invasion were still larger than those areas that had been invaded. Therefore, A. philoxeroides is pre-dicted to continue to expand in China. Most Chinese provinces excluding Tibet, Qinghai, western Sichuan, southern Xinjiang, western Gansu, north-eastern Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Heilongjiang and Hainan are likely to be invaded. Because they are adjacent to areas that had been invaded, Shaanxi, Shanxi and south-eastern Gansu were most liable to be invaded; hence urgent measures should be taken there to prevent this species from further spreading.