生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (6): 618-626.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08185

• 论文 • 上一篇    

新疆准噶尔盆地生物多样性保育与建立国家荒漠公园的构想

唐海萍1*, 颜莉娟1, 张新时1, 2   

  1. 1 (北京师范大学资源学院, 地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875)
    2 (中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
  • 出版日期:2008-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐海萍

Biodiversity conservation and a conception for a national desert park in Dzungaria Basin, Xinjiang

Haiping Tang1*, Lijuan Yan1, Xinshi Zhang1, 2   

  1. 1 College of Resources Science & Technology; State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bei-jing 100093
  • Online:2008-11-20
  • Contact: Haiping Tang

新疆准噶尔盆地拥有世界温带荒漠中最为丰富的野生动植物资源。但由于长期以来过度放牧、开垦、樵采、滥挖、盗猎等人类活动的干扰, 以及目前石油、煤炭等矿产资源的开发, 准噶尔盆地的生物多样性岌岌可危, 迫切需要提出生物多样性保育计划来解决开发与保护之间的矛盾。本文首先从荒漠植被类型、短命植物资源、野生动物资源等几个方面详尽地分析了准噶尔盆地生物多样性的现状, 提出了准噶尔盆地生物多样性保育的重点是: (1)盆地腹地的以梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron)、白梭梭(H. persicum)等为代表的温带矮半乔木荒漠, 以沙拐枣(Calligonum spp.)、柽柳(Tamarix spp.)等为代表的灌木荒漠, 及以猪毛菜(Salsola arbuscula)、假木贼(Anabasis spp.)为代表的半灌木和矮半灌木荒漠等3种荒漠植被类型; (2) 短命植物资源; (3) 以普氏野马(Equus przewalskii)为代表的野生有蹄类动物; 然后结合准噶尔盆地煤和石油等矿产资源的分布和开发的重点地区, 目前保护区现状以及国外相关的保护经验, 论证了准噶尔盆地生物多样性保育的可行性。基于以上分析, 我们从规划布局以及立法、管理体制、旅游资源管理等方面提出了建立准噶尔国家荒漠公园的构想。

Dzungaria Basin in Xinjiang possesses the most abundant biological resources of animals and plants among the temperate deserts in the world. It has been influenced negatively by the human disturbance such as overgrazing, farming, wood harvesting, digging herbs and illegal hunting as well as by the rapid industrial development for mineral and energy resources such as oil and coal. A plan for biodiversity conservation is so urgent for the basin that the contradiction between biodiversity protection and economic development can be solved. Here, we propose a conception for a national desert park in the basin. Firstly, the boundary of the Dzungaria Basin was determined through topographic mapping, field investigation, and historical data. Secondly, the current biological diversity in terms of the desert vegetation types, ephemeral plant species, and the wildlife was then analyzed in details. The most important items in the plan include three types of desert vegetation (such as dwarf semi-arboreous desert, shrub desert and semi-shrub, and dwarf semi-shrub desert), the ephemeral plant resources and the wild ungulate animals like Equus przewalskii as representative. Thirdly, the feasibility of biodiversity conservation was also analyzed based on the distribution of key areas for further development of energy and mineral resources, the current status of nature reserves and the international experience of national preserves. Finally, the schematic planning of the national desert park, legislation, demarcation of the ecological red-line zone, management system, and the cooperation management of different departments were generally discussed for the establishment of Dzungaria National Desert Park.

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