生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 244-252.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019323

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从《生物多样性公约》资金机制战略目标变迁解析生物多样性热点问题

刘海鸥1, 2, 张风春2, 赵富伟3, 杜乐山2, 薛达元1, *()   

  1. 1 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    2 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    3 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-16 接受日期:2019-12-19 出版日期:2020-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元 E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    中央民族大学双一流建设项目(YLDXXK201819);生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Biodiversity sensitive issues from changes in the strategic objectives of the financial mechanism for the Convention on Biological Diversity

Haiou Liu1, 2, Fengchun Zhang2, Fuwei Zhao3, Leshan Du2, Dayuan Xue1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    2 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    3 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environment and Ecology, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2019-10-16 Accepted:2019-12-19 Online:2020-02-20
  • Contact: Dayuan Xue E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com

全球环境基金是《生物多样性公约》的唯一资金机制, 它按照《生物多样性公约》要求和基金自身的政策导向为发展中国家和经济转型国家提供资金支持。从其试点期到当前的第7增资期, 全球环境基金在生物多样性领域的战略目标发生了多次变迁, 研究这些资金机制战略目标所涉及的生物多样性热点问题的变迁情况对未来相关工作开展具有一定参考意义。本文梳理了各增资期生物多样性领域战略目标所涉及的生物多样性热点问题, 对每个热点问题在全球环境基金各增资期中资金量和内容的变迁情况进行了分析, 并就中国当前情况与之进行比较, 进而提出了加强对保护地中生态系统代表性的考虑、增强保护地资金可持续性、全面推动生物多样性主流化、加强生物安全相关领域研究、推进遗传资源获取和惠益分享立法并注重知识管理、加强新问题新挑战的应对、深化资金机制研究等建议, 以期为开展《生物多样性公约》履约、生物多样性管理和研究工作提供参考。

关键词: 生物多样性公约, 全球环境基金, 生物多样性热点问题

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the only financial mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity, providing financial support to developing countries and countries with economies in transition in accordance with the requirements of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the policy orientation of the GEF. From the pilot period to the current seventh replenishment of the GEF (GEF-7), the Strategic Objectives in the focal area of biodiversity in each replenishment period have also undergone several changes. References exist for us to carry out related work in the future to study the changes of biodiversity sensitive issues involved in the Strategic Objectives of the financial mechanism. This paper catalogues sensitive issues involved in the Strategic Objectives of the biodiversity Focal Area in each replenishment period of the GEF, analyzes the changes of each issue in the amount and content of funds in each GEF period, and compares and analyzes the current situation in China. Furthermore, we propose recommendations, including strengthening the consideration of the representativeness of ecosystems in protected areas, enhancing the sustainability of protected areas, comprehensively promoting the mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation, etc., with a view to providing reference for the implementation for the Convention on Biological Diversity, biodiversity management and related research works.

Key words: Convention on Biological Diversity, Global Environment Facility, biodiversity sensitive issues

图1

全球环境基金试点期至第7增资期在生物多样性及其他领域的投资情况。数据来源于全球环境基金增资文件和网站公布的项目信息。"

图2

全球环境基金第5-7增资期在各领域的资金额。数据来源于全球环境基金增资文件和网站公布的项目信息。"

表1

全球环境基金各增资期生物多样性领域所涉及的热点问题"

增资期
Replenishment period
各增资期战略目标
Strategic objectives
战略目标中所涉及的热点问题
Hot issues involved in the strategic objectives
试点期
Pilot phase
1. 生物多样性保护
Biodiversity conservation
2. 生物多样性可持续利用
Sustainable use of biodiversity
1. 生物多样性保护
Biodiversity conservation
2. 生物多样性可持续利用
Sustainable use of biodiversity
第1增资期
GEF-1
1. 编制国家生物多样性战略与行动计划
Development of national biodiversity strategy and action plan (NBSAPs)
2. 构建生物多样性信息交换机制
Establishment of biodiversity clearing house mechanism (CHM)
1. 编制国家生物多样性战略与行动计划
Development of NBSAPs

2. 建立信息交换机制
Establishment of biodiversity CHM
第2增资期
GEF-2
1. 评估生物多样性相关能力建设需求
Assessment of capacity-building needs for biodiversity

2. 构建生物多样性信息交换机制
Establishment of biodiversity Clearing House Mechanism
1. 评估生物多样性相关能力建设需求
Assessment of capacity-building needs for biodiversity
2. 建立生物多样性信息交换机制
Establishment of biodiversity CHM
第3增资期
GEF-3
1. 提高保护地体系可持续性
Catalyzing sustainability of protected area systems
2. 将生物多样性在生产性的陆地景观和部门中主流化
Mainstreaming biodiversity in production landscapes and sectors
3. 履行《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》的能力建设
Capacity building for the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
4. 应对当前和新出现生物多样性问题的良好做法的形成、推广和采纳
Generation, dissemination and uptake of good practices for addressing current and emerging biodiversity issues
1. 保护地保护和管理
Protected areas (PAs) protection and management
2. 生物多样性主流化
Biodiversity mainstreaming
3. 履行《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》
Implementation of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

4. 推广应对新问题的良好做法

Dissemination of good practices for addressing new issues
第4增资期
GEF-4
1. 提高国家层面保护地体系可持续性
Catalyzing sustainability of protected area systems at national levels
2. 将生物多样性保护在生产性的陆地景观和部门中主流化
Mainstreaming biodiversity conservation within production landscapes and sectors
3. 履行《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》的能力建设
Capacity building for the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
4. 应对生物多样性新问题的成功做法的形成、推广和吸收
Generation, dissemination, and uptake of good practices for emerging issues in biodiversity
1. 保护地保护和管理
Protected areas protection and management
2. 生物多样性主流化
Biodiversity mainstreaming

3. 履行《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》
Implementation of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

4. 推广应对新问题的良好做法
Dissemination of good practices for addressing new issues
第5增资期
GEF-5
1. 改善保护地体系的可持续性
Improve the sustainability of protected area systems
2. 将生物多样性保护和可持续利用在生产性的陆地和海洋景观及部门中主流化
Mainstream biodiversity conservation and sustainable use into production landscapes/ seascapes and sectors
3. 履行《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》能力建设
Build capacity to implement the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
4. 提高遗传资源获取与惠益分享的能力
Build capacity on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing
5. 通过提高基础能力的活动将《生物多样性公约》义务纳入国家规划进程
Integrate CBD obligations into national planning processes through enabling activities
1. 保护地保护和管理
Protected areas protection and management
2. 生物多样性主流化
Biodiversity mainstreaming
3. 履行《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》
Implementation of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
4. 遗传资源获取与惠益分享
Access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing
5. 将《生物多样性公约》义务纳入国家规划
Integrating CBD obligations into national planning
第6增资期
GEF-6
1. 改善保护地体系的可持续性
Improve sustainability of protected area systems
2. 减少对具有全球重要生物多样性的威胁
Reduce threats to globally significant biodiversity
3. 生物多样性可持续利用
Sustainably use of biodiversity
4. 将生物多样性保护和可持续利用在生产性的陆地和海洋景观及部门中主流化
Mainstream biodiversity conservation and sustainable use into production landscapes/seascapes and sectors
1. 保护地保护和管理
Protected areas protection and management
2. 减少生物多样性威胁
Reducing threats to biodiversity
3. 生物多样性可持续利用
Sustainably use of biodiversity
4. 生物多样性主流化
Biodiversity mainstreaming
第7增资期
GEF-7
1. 生物多样性在跨部门及陆地和海洋景观中主流化
Mainstream biodiversity across sectors as well as landscapes and seascapes;
2. 应对直接驱动因素以保护栖息地和物种
Address direct drivers to protect habitats and species
3. 进一步制定生物多样性政策和体制框架
Further develop biodiversity policy and institutional frameworks
1. 生物多样性主流化
Biodiversity mainstreaming
2. 栖息地和物种保护
Protection of habitats and species
3. 进一步制定生物多样性政策和体制框架
Further developing policy and institutional frameworks.
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