生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (10): 1081-1089.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019264

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江上游支流南广河的鱼类多样性及资源现状

代梦梦1, 杨坤2, 黎树1, 王小东1, 宋昭彬1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 四川大学生命科学学院四川省濒危野生动物保护生物学重点实验室, 成都 610065
    2 西华师范大学生态研究院, 四川南充 637009
    3 四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-20 接受日期:2019-11-02 出版日期:2019-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 宋昭彬 E-mail:zbsong@scu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    四川省水产局科研项目(17H0836)

Fish diversity and resource status in the Nanguang River, a tributary of upper Yangtze River

Dai Mengmeng1, Yang Kun2, Li Shu1, Wang Xiaodong1, Song Zhaobin1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
    2 Institute of Ecology, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009
    3 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
  • Received:2019-08-20 Accepted:2019-11-02 Online:2019-10-20
  • Contact: Song Zhaobin E-mail:zbsong@scu.edu.cn

南广河是长江上游一级支流, 为全面了解该河流的鱼类多样性, 作者于2017年11月至2018年9月在南广河干流及支流28个采样点进行了6次调查, 共采集鱼类64种, 隶属于5目13科48属, 其中四川省重点保护鱼类有鲈鲤(Percocypris pingi)和岩原鲤(Procypris rabaudi) 2种, 长江上游特有鱼类17种, 列入《中国脊椎动物红色名录》的濒危和易危的鱼类有9种。南广河现有分布鱼类以小型种类为主, 宽鳍鱲(Zacco platypus)和鲤(Cyprinus carpio)为优势种。南广河鱼类多样性总体较高, Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson优势度指数及Pielou均匀度指数分别为6.57、3.10、0.93、0.74; 中游河段的鱼类种类和数量较丰富, 分别占渔获物总种类和总数量的65.63%和28.98%; 支流镇舟河的鱼类种类和数量也较丰富, 分别占37.50%和20.48%。南广河不同河段的鱼类种类组成具有明显差异, 大坝建设和过度捕捞可能影响了鱼类分布并导致其资源量下降。

关键词: 南广河, 物种多样性, 鱼类资源, 优势种

Nanguang River is a tributary of upper Yangtze River that provides important resources and food to various communities. To understand the current status of fish diversity within Nanguang River, we sampled the river and its primary tributaries six times from November 2017 to September 2018. A total of 64 fish species were collected, two of which (Percocypris pingi and Procypris rabaudi) are protected fish in Sichuan Province, 17 species were endemic to the upper Yangtze River, and 9 were listed as endangered or vulnerable species in Red List of China’s Vertebrates. The most dominant fish were small in size, of which Zacco platypus and Cyprinus carpio were most dominant. Additionally, the Nanguang River fish community possess considerable diversity based on Margalef species richness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson dominance index, and Pielou evenness index values. While there are obvious differences in fish composition across different reaches of the Nanguang River, dam construction and overfishing may have considerably impacted fish distribution and fish resources, the results of which our investigation presents.

Key words: Nanguang River, species diversity, fish resources, dominant species

图1

南广河鱼类资源调查采样点。符号代表含义见表1。"

表1

南广河鱼类资源调查采样点信息"

河流 River 河段 Reach 采样点(代码) Sampling site (Code) 纬度 Latitude (N) 经度 Longitude (E)
干流
Mainstream
上游
Upstream
高田乡 Gaotian Township (M1) 27°57° 105°09°
罗布乡 Luobu Township (M2) 27°57° 105°02'
旧城镇 Jiucheng Town (M3) 28°02° 105°04°
观斗乡 Guandou Township (M4) 28°02° 104°58°
石碑乡 Shibei Township (M5) 28°06° 104°57°
中游
Midstream
罗渡电站库区 Reservoir of Luodu Hydropower Station (M6) 28°05° 104°51°
罗渡大桥 Luodu Bridge (M7) 28°06° 104°49°
上罗镇 Shangluo Town (M8) 28°08° 104°48°
共腾村 Gongteng Village (M9) 28°11° 104°42°
沐滩乡 Mutan Township (M10) 28°13° 104°40°
孝儿镇 Xiaoer Town (M11) 28°16° 104°40°
趱滩乡 Zantan Township (M12) 28°19° 104°38°
下游
Downstream
文江镇 Wenjiang Town (M13) 28°22° 104°34°
贾村 Jia Village (M14) 28°30° 104°29°
来复镇 Laifu Town (M15) 28°33° 104°34°
大窝镇 Dawo Town (M16) 28°36° 104°37°
月江镇 Yuejiang Town (M17) 28°39° 104°40°
南广镇 Nanguang Town (M18) 28°41° 104°41°
支流
Tributary
洛亥河
Luohai River
洛亥镇 Luohai Town (T1) 28°01° 104°54°
黄桷村 Huangjue Village (T2) 28°04° 104°51°
镇舟河
Zhenzhou River
大雪山镇 Daxueshan Town (T3) 27°55° 104°43°
镇舟镇 Zhenzhou Town (T4) 28°01° 104°41°
维新镇 Weixin Town (T5) 28°09° 104°41°
巡司河 Xunsi River 武德乡 Wude Township (T6) 28°05° 104°35°
宋江河
Songjiang River
双腾镇 Shuangteng Town (T7) 28°06° 104°29°
塘坝乡 Tangba Township (T8) 28°07° 104°27°
羊田乡 Yangtian Township (T9) 28°14° 104°30°
罗场镇 Luochang Town (T10) 28°17° 104°29°

表2

南广河鱼类的相对重要性指数"

种类
Species
数量百分比
Percentage of number (%)
重量百分比
Percentage of weight (%)
出现频率
Frequency of occurrence
相对重要性指数
Index of relative importance (IRI)
优势类型
Dominant type
宽鳍鱲 Zacco platypus 17.65 6.82 0.71 1,747.45 D
Cyprinus carpio 0.65 20.37 0.54 1,125.78 D
Carassius auratus 2.48 8.89 0.75 852.53 C
麦穗鱼 Pseudorasbora parva 9.29 2.48 0.71 840.62 C
高体鳑鲏 Rhodeus ocellatus 9.95 1.39 0.64 728.73 C
切尾拟鲿 Tachysurus truncatus 4.64 3.77 0.75 630.83 C
马口鱼 Opsariichthys bidens 3.71 2.87 0.54 352.39 C
瓦氏黄颡鱼 Tachysurus vachellii 3.80 3.49 0.46 338.42 C
唇? Hemibarbus labeo 2.20 4.23 0.46 298.45 C
短须颌须鮈 Gnathopogon imberbis 4.38 1.21 0.50 279.59 C
棒花鱼 Abbottina rivularis 5.28 1.67 0.39 272.95 C
红尾副鳅 Homatula variegata 3.91 1.28 0.50 259.44 C
乐山小鳔鮈 Microphysogobio kiatingensis 4.83 1.27 0.39 239.44 C
蛇鮈 Saurogobio dabryi 3.61 2.58 0.32 199.23 C
子陵吻鰕虎鱼 Rhinogobius giurinus 2.93 0.63 0.54 190.79 C
泉水鱼 Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus 1.66 2.62 0.43 183.77 C
翘嘴鮊 Culter alburnus 0.38 5.05 0.25 135.87 C
短体副鳅 Homatula potanini 2.82 0.91 0.36 133.23 C
泥鳅 Misgurnus anguillicaudatus 1.11 0.55 0.61 101.08 C
光泽黄颡鱼 Tachysurus nitidus 1.77 1.15 0.29 83.56 G
黄颡鱼 Tachysurus fulvidraco 0.45 1.22 0.46 77.76 G
大眼鳜 Siniperca knerii 1.03 2.53 0.21 76.35 G
Silurus asotus 0.20 1.19 0.46 64.28 G
草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idella 0.07 2.88 0.21 63.11 G
福建纹胸鮡 Glyptothorax fokiensis 1.69 0.62 0.25 57.84 G
粗唇鮠 Tachysurus crassilabris 0.49 0.71 0.46 55.98 G
贝氏高原鳅 Triplophysa bleekeri 2.17 0.40 0.18 45.79 G
齐口裂腹鱼 Schizothorax prenanti 0.70 1.63 0.18 41.64 G
南方鲇 Silurus meridionalis 0.16 2.60 0.14 39.40 G
花? Hemibarbus maculatus 0.51 0.89 0.25 34.92 G
四川华吸鳅 Sinogastromyzon szechuanensis 1.13 0.15 0.25 31.99 G
大鳍鳠 Hemibagrus macropterus 0.27 0.99 0.25 31.54 G
大鳞副泥鳅 Paramisgurnus dabryanus 0.29 0.29 0.36 20.83 G
中华倒刺鲃 Spinibarbus sinensis 0.06 0.84 0.18 16.08 G
黑尾? Hemiculter tchangi 0.80 0.45 0.11 13.45 G
中华沙鳅 Sinibotia superciliaris 0.32 0.16 0.21 10.21 G
云南光唇鱼 Acrossocheilus yunnanensis 0.31 1.03 0.07 9.63 R
其他 Others 2.30 8.17 1.50 62.13 R

表3

南广河不同河段渔获物组成"

河流
River
河段
Reach
种数
Number of species
种数百分比
Percentage of species (%)
数量
Sample size
数量百分比
Percentage of quantity (%)
干流 Mainstream 上游 Upstream 31 48.44 2,950 20.11
中游 Midstream 42 65.63 4,250 28.98
下游 Downstream 43 67.19 1,583 10.79
小计 Total 56 87.50 8,783 59.89
支流 Tributary 洛亥河 Luohai River 22 34.38 459 3.13
镇舟河 Zhenzhou River 24 37.50 3,004 20.48
巡司河 Xunsi River 16 25.00 1,254 8.55
宋江河 Songjiang River 21 32.81 1,166 7.95
小计 Total 41 64.06 5,883 40.11

图2

南广河不同河段的鱼类多样性。UM: 上游(干流); MM: 中游(干流); DM: 下游(干流); LT: 洛亥河(支流); ZT: 镇舟河(支流); XT: 巡司河(支流); ST: 宋江河(支流)。"

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