生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 638-647.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019070

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区金猫的色型类别与活动节律

王渊1, 李晟2, 刘务林1, *(), 朱雪林1, 李炳章1   

  1. 1 西藏自治区林业调查规划研究院, 拉萨 850000
    2 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-11 接受日期:2019-05-27 出版日期:2019-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘务林 E-mail:wulinliu01@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    西藏自治区第二次陆生野生动物资源调查项目

Coat pattern variation and activity rhythm of Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) in Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve of Tibet, China

Wang Yuan1, Li Sheng2, Liu Wulin1, *(), Zhu Xuelin1, Li Bingzhang1   

  1. 1 Forestry Inventory and Planning Institute of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa 850000
    2 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2019-03-11 Accepted:2019-05-27 Online:2019-06-20
  • Contact: Liu Wulin E-mail:wulinliu01@163.com

2013-2018年间采用红外相机技术对西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区的金猫(Catopuma temminckii)进行长期监测, 累计布设70个点位, 14,071个相机工作日。共收集金猫独立照片101张, 其中60张可识别色型, 占金猫独立照片总数的59.40%。共记录到4种不同色型的金猫个体, 拍摄频次比例为麻褐色型:红棕色型:黑色型:灰色型 = 46:7:4:3; 其中灰色型为我国野生金猫实体首次记录。不同色型的个体可同域分布, 而以雅鲁藏布大峡谷自然保护区为代表的藏东南地区是我国金猫色型变异最丰富的地区。基于红外相机照片对金猫的共性形态特征和不同色型的独特形态特征进行了详细的图文描述, 以期为该物种的深入研究提供详实的基础资料。活动节律的分析结果显示, 研究区内金猫以昼行性活动为主, 10:00-12:00为其最强的活动高峰。不同月份的日活动差异指数(daily-discrepancy index) α和昼行性指数(diurnal-nocturnal index) β均存在显著差异, 且活动强度具有明显的季节性变化, 不同季节的活动峰型存在显著差异。本研究为东喜马拉雅生物多样性热点区动物多样性本底的完善积累了基础资料, 也为后续的猫科动物色型多样性的形成机制研究提供了基础信息与参考。

关键词: 金猫(Catopuma temminckii), 红外相机技术, 西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区, 活动节律

From 2013 to 2018 we conducted camera-trapping surveys on the elusive Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) in Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve, Tibet. With an extensive survey effort of 14,071 camera-days at 70 camera stations, we obtained 101 independent detections of Asiatic golden cat, of which 60 (59.4%) were captured during day time and used to identify the coat markings of each captured individual. Four types of coat variations were detected and defined. The capture rates were: 46 common form, 7 red form, 4 melanistic form, and 3 gray form. The gray form was the first ever record in China. Results indicate that individuals of different forms could be co-existing and southeast Tibet has the most diverse coat variations of Asiatic golden cat in China. We described the morphological characteristics shared among and between the different forms, which will provide a sound foundation for further research on this species. The Asiatic golden cats in the study area showed a diurnal activity rhythm with the highest activity peak between 10:00 and 12:00. There were significant differences in daily-discrepancy index α and diurnal-nocturnal index β in different months and the activity intensity and peak patterns had obvious seasonal changes. This study has accumulated basic data for wildlife inventory of the East Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, and also provided basic information and reference for subsequent research on the mechanisms determining coat variations of felid species.

Key words: Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii), camera-trapping, Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve, activity rhythm

表1

2013-2018年西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区9个调查片区红外相机工作日与金猫独立照片数"

调查片区
Survey areas
红外相机位点数 Number of camera stations 海拔范围
Elevation range
(m)
相机工作日
Number of camera-days
照片数量
Number of photographs
金猫独立照片数
Number of independent photographs of golden cat
比西日区 The Bixiri Area 11 2,235-3,479 2,794 12,294 34
雅鲁藏布江南岸区
The south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River Area
10 582-668 1,880 16,751 0
乌马山区 The Uma Mountain Area 6 1,751-3,145 1,374 6,942 0
拉吉山区 The Raj Mountain Area 8 1,631-2,086 1,968 8,467 12
旦各着区 The Dangezhuo Area 3 954-1,434 630 684 2
格当沟区 The Gedang Ditch Area 16 2,230-2,470 2,691 8,713 46
美玉伦巴区 The Meiyulunba Area 2 1,751-2,315 294 5,172 1
西贡河区 The Xigong River Area 6 1,124-1,590 1,080 6,532 3
德阳沟区 The Deyang Ditch Area 8 815-1,294 1,360 6,359 3
合计 Total 70 582-3,479 14,071 71,914 101

图1

西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区内红外相机拍摄的金猫的4种色型。a: 麻褐色型; b: 红棕色型; c: 黑色型; d: 灰色型。"

表2

各调查区域内金猫4种色型个体的独立照片数"

调查片区
Survey areas
总独立照片数
No. of independent photographs
各色型独立照片数 No. of independent photographs of each form
麻褐色型
Common form
红棕色型
Red form
黑色型
Melanistic form
灰色型
Gray form
比西日区 The Bixiri Area 34 6 7 3
雅鲁藏布江南岸区
The south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River Area
0
乌马山区 The Uma Mountain Area 0
拉吉山区 The Raj Mountain Area 12 1
旦各着区 The Dangezhuo Area 2 2
格当沟区 The Gedang Ditch Area 46 35 3
美玉伦巴区 The Meiyulunba Area 1
西贡河区 The Xigong River Area 3 3
德阳沟区 The Deyang Ditch Area 3
合计 Total 101 46 7 4 3

图2

西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区金猫日活动节律(N = 101)"

图3

金猫日活动差异指数(α)的日变化(a)和月变化(b)"

图4

金猫昼行性指数(β)的日变化(a)和月变化(b)"

图5

金猫季节性活动强度指数γ每天的变化"

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