生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 821-832.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019058

• • 上一篇    下一篇

大兴安岭地区可培养毛霉门真菌多样性与分布

吕美林1, 2, 刘泽3, 宋震1, 王亚宁1, 刘小勇1, *()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3. 北京林业大学林学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-27 接受日期:2019-04-25 出版日期:2019-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘小勇 E-mail:liuxiaoyong@im.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    科技部科技基础性工作专项(2014FY210400);国家自然科学基金(31670019);国家自然科学基金(31600022)

Diversity and distribution of culturable Mucoromycota fungi in the Greater Khinggan Mountains, China

Meilin Lü1, 2, Ze Liu3, Zhen Song1, Yaning Wang1, Xiaoyong Liu1, *()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3. College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2019-02-27 Accepted:2019-04-25 Online:2019-08-20
  • Contact: Liu Xiaoyong E-mail:liuxiaoyong@im.ac.cn

为查明大兴安岭地区可培养毛霉门真菌的资源、多样性及其分布, 本研究选取9个代表市县, 采集了279份枯枝落叶、腐殖质、土壤和粪便样品, 采用稀释平板挑取法、稀释平板切块法和样品直接培养挑取法进行分离培养。通过形态初步观察鉴定, 共得到毛霉门真菌1,153株。选取代表性的菌株706株, 基于真菌分子条形码ITS rDNA进行分子系统发育多样性分析, 明确了毛霉门真菌总计3目8科10属38种。优势属为被孢霉属(Mortierella)、伞形霉属(Umbelopsis)和毛霉属(Mucor), 优势种为类变形被孢霉(Mortierella amoeboidea)、冻土毛霉(Mucor hiemalis)和深黄伞形霉(Umbelopsis isabellina)。本文同时汇总了全国已报道毛霉亚门和被孢霉亚门共计26属的分布, 分析了大兴安岭优势属和优势种在全国的分布。按三大主要生态区(东部湿润、半湿润生态区, 西北干旱、半干旱生态区和青藏高原高寒生态区)对所有属进行区域分析, 结果表明: 有9个属在3个大区都有分布; 对特有属而言, 东部湿润、半湿润生态区发现9个, 西北干旱、半干旱生态区仅有1个, 青藏高原高寒生态区未发现。

关键词: 大兴安岭, 毛霉目, 被孢霉目, 多样性, 分布

To investigate the resources, diversity and distribution of culturable mucoromycotan fungi in the Greater Khingan Mountains, 279 samples including dry branches and fallen leaves, humus, soil and faeces were collected from nine representative counties and cities. A total of 1,153 strains of mucoromycotan fungi were isolated using a dilution plate, cutting and direct incubation methods. Among the 1,153 strains, 706 representatives were analyzed on the basis of fungal molecular barcode ITS rDNA. These mucoromycotan fungi were classified into 3 orders, 8 families, 10 genera and 38 species. Dominant genera were Mortierella, Umbelopsis, and Mucor, while dominant species were Mortierella amoeboidea, Mucor hiemalis, and Umbelopsis isabellina. This paper also summarized all 26 genera of Mucoromycotina and Mortierellomycotina reported in China, and the distribution of the dominant genera and species of the Greater Khinggan Mountains were analyzed. In addition, regional distribution of all genera was analyzed with regard to three major ecological regions (Eastern wet and semi-humid ecological regions, northwestern arid and semi-arid ecological regions and the Tibetan Plateau alpine ecological regions). The results showed that nine genera were distributed in all the three regions. For endemic genera, nine were found in the Eastern wet and semi-humid ecological region, only one in northwestern arid and semi-arid ecological region, and none in the Tibetan Plateau alpine ecological regions.

Key words: the Greater Khinggan Mountains, Mucorales, Mortierellales, diversity, distribution

图1

基于ITS rDNA序列构建的大兴安岭地区毛霉门真菌的最大似然树, Clonostachys属为外群。"

表1

大兴安岭地区毛霉门真菌物种数量及其占比"

类别
Category

Order

Family
属名
Genus
种数
Species number
占比
Percent (%)
优势属 Dominant genus 被孢霉目 Mortierellales 被孢霉科 Mortierellaceae 被孢霉属 Mortierella 15 39.47
毛霉目 Mucorales 毛霉科 Mucoraceae, 毛霉属 Mucor 6 15.78
伞形霉目 Umbelopsidales 伞形霉科 Umbelopsidaceae 伞形霉属 Umbelopsis 6 15.78
常见属 Common genus 毛霉目 Mucorales 根霉科 Rhizopodaceae 根霉属 Rhizopus 2 5.26
横梗霉科 Lichtheimiaceae 横梗霉属 Lichtheimia 2 5.26
巴克斯霉科 Backusellaceae 巴克斯霉属 Backusella 1 2.63
小克银汉科
Cunninghamellaceae
小克银汉霉属
Cunninghamella
1 2.63
犁头霉属 Absidia 1 2.63
须霉科 Phycomycetaceae 须霉属 Phycomyces 1 2.63
毛霉科 Mucoraceae 接霉属 Zygorhynchus 1 2.63
合计 Total 3 8 10 38 100

表2

大兴安岭地区毛霉门各物种菌株数及其占比"

类别 Category 物种 Species 株数 Strain number 占比 Percent (%)
优势种 Dominant species 类变形被孢霉 Mortierella amoeboidea 112 16.00
冻土毛霉 Mucor hiemalis 97 13.86
深黄伞形霉 Umbelopsis isabellina 80 11.43
常见种 Common species 小被孢霉 Mortierella minutissima 47 6.71
轮枝被孢霉 Mortierella verticillata 46 6.57
雅致小克银汉霉 Cunninghamella elegans 42 6.00
细长被孢霉 Mortierella elongata 33 4.71
高山被孢霉 Mortierella alpina 31 4.43
矮小被孢霉 Mortierella humilis 28 4.00
少根根霉 Rhizopus oryzae 28 4.00
拉曼伞形霉 Umbelopsis ramanniana 16 2.29
易脆毛霉 Mucor fragilis 15 2.14
具棱伞形霉 Umbelopsis angularis 14 2.00
长白伞形霉 Umbelopsis changbaiensis 12 1.71
微孢被孢霉 Mortierella parvispora 11 1.57
伞房横梗霉 Lichtheimia corymbifera 10 1.43
总状毛霉 Mucor racemosus 9 1.29
灰绿犁头霉 Absidia glauca 9 1.29
卷枝毛霉 Mucor circinelloides 8 1.14
带状毛霉 Mucor zonatus 8 1.14
稀有种 Rare species 葡酒色伞形霉 Umbelopsis vinacea 6 0.86
总状横梗霉 Lichtheimia ramosa 6 0.86
华美被孢霉 Mortierella pulchella 5 0.71
詹金氏被孢霉 Mortierella jenkinii 4 0.57
小孢根霉 Rhizopus microsporus 4 0.57
伞形霉属一种 Umbelopsis sp. 4 0.57
盖姆斯被孢霉 Mortierella gamsii 3 0.43
囊詹金氏被孢霉 Mortierella cystojenkinii 3 0.43
双型伞形霉 Umbelopsis dimorpha 2 0.29
菌囊被孢霉 Mortierella fimbricystis 2 0.29
管孢巴克斯霉 Backusella tuberculispora 2 0.29
无色被孢霉 Mortierella hyalina 2 0.29
被孢霉属一种 Mortierella sp. 2 0.29
贝氏被孢霉 Mortierella beljakovae 1 0.14
卵孢毛霉 Mucor moelleri 1 0.14
产芽胞被孢霉 Mortierella gemmifera 1 0.14
布拉克须霉 Phycomyces blakesleeanus 1 0.14
异形接霉 Zygorhynchus heterogamus 1 0.14
合计 Total 38 706 100

图2

大兴安岭地区不同基物分离的毛霉门各属菌株数(a)及物种数(b)"

表3

我国毛霉门各属的分布。EWER: 东部湿润、半湿润生态区; NAER: 西北干旱、半干旱生态区; TPER: 青藏高原高寒生态区。"

属 Genus 分布地 Distribution area 生态区域
Ecological region
巴克斯霉属 Backusella 江西、台湾 Jiangxi, Taiwan EWER
被孢霉属 Mortierella 北京、重庆、福建、广东、湖北、河北、河南、吉林、江苏、江西、内蒙古、宁夏、青海、四川、山东、陕西、天津、台湾、新疆、西藏、云南、浙江 Beijing, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Hubei, Hebei, Henan, Jilin, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Neimenggu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shandong, Shaanxi, Tianjin, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
布拉霉属 Blakeslea 福建、海南、江苏、上海、台湾、浙江 Fujian, Hainan, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Taiwan, Zhejiang EWER
放射毛霉属 Actinomucor 安徽、北京、福建、甘肃、广东、广西、湖北、河北、香港、吉林、江苏、辽宁、内蒙古、宁夏、青海、四川、山东 山西、陕西、天津、台湾、新疆、西藏、云南、浙江 Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hebei, Hong Kong, Jilin, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Neimenggu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Tianjin, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
根毛霉属 Rhizomucor 北京、湖北、河北、四川、山东、陕西、台湾、新疆、西藏、云南、浙江 Beijing, Hubei, Hebei, Sichuan, Shandong, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
根霉属 Rhizopus 北京、重庆、福建、甘肃、广东、广西、贵州、海南、湖北、河北、黑龙江、湖南、吉林、江苏、江西、辽宁、内蒙古、宁夏、青海、四川、山东、上海、山西、陕西、台湾、新疆、西藏、云南、浙江 Beijing, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Jilin, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Neimenggu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
共头霉属 Syncephalastrum 吉林、陕西、台湾、西藏 Jilin, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xizang EWER, TPER
钩枝霉属 Thamnostylum 台湾 Taiwan EWER
横梗霉属 Lichtheimia 北京、黑龙江、内蒙古、宁夏、陕西、台湾 Beijing, Heilongjiang, Neimenggu, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Taiwan EWER, NAER
笄霉属 Choanephora 安徽、北京、重庆、福建、海南、广东、广西、贵州、宁夏、山西、陕西、四川 Anhui, Beijing, Chongqing, Fujian, Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Ningxia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan EWER
接霉属 Zygorhynchus 黑龙江、西藏 Heilongjiang, Xizang EWER, TPER
卷霉属 Circinella 黑龙江、宁夏、陕西、台湾、西藏 Heilongjiang, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xizang EWER, NAER
犁头霉属 Absidia 甘肃、广东、黑龙江、吉林、江苏、宁夏、四川、陕西、台湾、新疆、西藏、云南、浙江 Gansu, Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
毛霉属 Mucor 北京、甘肃、河北、黑龙江、湖南、江苏、辽宁、内蒙古、宁夏、青海、四川、山东、山西、陕西、台湾、新疆、云南、浙江 Beijing, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Neimenggu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
泼氏霉属 Poitrasia 北京、重庆、福建、广东、广西、海南、四川 Beijing, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan EWER
球托霉属 Gongronella 台湾 Taiwan EWER
伞菌霉属 Spinellus 吉林 Jilin EWER
伞形霉属 Umbelopsis 福建、湖北、黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、四川、香港、西藏、云南、浙江 Fujian, Hubei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Neimenggu, Sichuan, Xianggang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
水玉霉属 Pilobolus 重庆、宁夏、陕西、台湾 Chongqing, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Taiwan EWER, NAER
丝枝霉属 Chaetocladium 台湾 Taiwan EWER
头珠霉属 Piptocephalis 陕西、台湾 Shaanxi, Taiwan EWER, NAER
小克银汉霉属
Cunninghamella
安徽、北京、福建、甘肃、广东、广西、贵州、海南、湖北、河北、黑龙江、香港、江苏、江西、辽宁、内蒙古、宁夏、青海、四川、上海、陕西、台湾、新疆、西藏、云南、浙江 Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Neimenggu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shanghai, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang EWER, NAER, TPER
须霉属 Phycomyces 黑龙江、台湾 Heilongjiang, Taiwan EWER, NAER
旋枝霉属 Pirella 内蒙古 Neimenggu NAER
倚囊霉属 Pilaira 江西、内蒙古、青海、新疆 Jiangxi, Neimenggu, Qinghai, Xinjiang EWER, NAER, TPER
枝霉属 Thamnidium 宁夏、陕西、台湾 Ningxia, Shaanxi, Taiwan EWER

图3

不同地区特有属和共有属韦恩图。(A)东部湿润、半湿润生态区; (B)西北干旱、半干旱生态区; (C)青藏高原高寒生态区。"

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