生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 200-210.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019012

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

烟台牟平海洋牧场季节性低氧对大型底栖动物群落的生态效应

杨陆飞1,2,陈琳琳2,李晓静2,周政权2,刘博1,2,宋博1,2,李秉钧1,*(),李宝泉2,*()   

  1. 1 烟台大学海洋学院, 山东烟台 264003
    2 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所海岸带生物学与生物资源保护实验室, 山东烟台 264003
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-16 接受日期:2019-02-26 出版日期:2019-02-20 发布日期:2019-04-16
  • 通讯作者: 李秉钧,李宝泉
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA11020403);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA11020702);美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项(XDA23050304);美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项(XDA23050202);中国科学院特别交流项目

Effect of seasonal hypoxia on macrobenthic communities in the Muping Marine Ranch, Yantai, China

Yang Lufei1,2,Chen Linlin2,Li Xiaojing2,Zhou Zhengquan2,Liu Bo1,2,Song Bo1,2,Li Bingjun1,*(),Li Baoquan2,*()   

  1. 1 School of Ocean, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong 264003
    2 Key Laboratory of Coastal Biology and Bioresource Utilization, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003
  • Received:2019-01-16 Accepted:2019-02-26 Online:2019-02-20 Published:2019-04-16
  • Contact: Li Bingjun,Li Baoquan

摘要:

由于气候变化和人类活动的影响, 世界许多海区尤其是近岸海区发生了不同程度的低氧现象, 导致海洋动物大量死亡, 对海洋生态系统产生了不同程度的影响。为明确烟台牟平海洋牧场低氧对大型底栖动物的生态效应, 我们于2016年夏季(6月、8月、9月共3个航次)在该海域进行现场调查, 分析低氧对大型底栖动物群落时空变化的影响。结果表明: 牟平海洋牧场8月低氧事件发生时, 大型底栖动物群落的优势种为短叶索沙蚕(Lumbrinereis latreilli)、不倒翁虫(Sternaspis scutata)和内肋蛤(Endopleura lubrica)。低氧在一定程度上改变了大型底栖动物的群落结构, 表现为物种组成和优势种变化上。例如, 耐受低氧的机会种数量增加, 如短叶索沙蚕; 敏感种数量减少, 如微小海螂(Leptomya minuta)、长吻沙蚕(Glycera chirori)、大蝼蛄虾(Upogebia major)、极地蚤钩虾(Pontocrates altamarimus)、塞切尔泥钩虾(Eriopisella sechellensis)等。同时, 低氧也导致了物种多样性的降低, 但丰度和生物量受其影响不明显, 这主要是由于机会种短叶索沙蚕丰度和生物量的剧增所致。大型底栖动物不同物种耐受低氧的阈值不同。例如, 短叶索沙蚕在溶解氧(DO) < 1.0 mg/L受影响最大, 在DO = 2.0 mg/L时受到的影响不明显, 而其他敏感种如微小海螂、大蝼蛄虾、极地蚤钩虾、塞切尔泥钩虾等在DO < 2.5 mg/L时, 已表现出明显的不适。低氧事件之后, 大型底栖动物群落得到一定程度的恢复, 其恢复程度和需要的时间长短与低氧发生的程度有关。

关键词: 低氧, 群落结构, 群落恢复, 敏感种, 机会种

Abstract:

Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in the world’s oceans, especially in the shallow waters of coastal zones. Rates of hypoxia are increasing due to global climatic changes and anthropogenic activities. Hypoxia can cause mass mortality of marine animals and can have severe negative impacts on marine ecosystems. To better understand the effects of hypoxia on macrobenthic communities, a survey was carried out in the Muping Marine Ranch (Yantai) during June, August and September of 2016. Results showed that seasonal hypoxia led to changes in benthic community structure, especially in terms of species composition and dominant species. The dominant species were Polychaeta Lumbrinereis latreilli, Sternaspis scutata and Mollusca Endopleura lubrica in summer. The opportunistic species Lumbrinereis latreilli increased, whereas, sensitive species such as Leptomya minuta, Glycera chirori, Upogebia major, Pontocrates altamarimus, Eriopisella sechellensis decreased during the hypoxic period of August. Hypoxia also reduced biodiversity indices. The effect of hypoxia on abundance and biomass were not significant, mainly because of the increase in the opportunistic Lumbrinereis latreilli, which counteracted the decline in abundance and biomass of other species. Individual physiological tolerance to hypoxia was different among species. Lumbrinereis latreilli showed higher tolerance to hypoxia in dissolved oxygen (DO) = 1.0 mg/L compared to other species. Some sensitive species, such as Leptomya minuta, Upogebia major, Pontocrates altamarimus and Eriopisella sechellensis showed lower tolerance when DO < 2.5 mg/L. When DO increased to 2.5 mg/L, the macrobenthic community start to recover gradually. The recovery extent and time needed were closely related to the degree of seasonal hypoxia.

Key words: hypoxia, community structure, community recovery, sensitive species, opportunistic species