生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 327-338.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018345

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

杜鹃花属植物的可育性研究进展

庄平()   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所华西亚高山植物园, 四川都江堰 611830
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-29 接受日期:2019-03-05 出版日期:2019-03-20 发布日期:2019-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 庄平
  • 基金资助:
    四川省科技支撑计划项目(2013NZ0031)

Progress on the fertility of Rhododendron

Zhuang Ping()   

  1. West China Subalpine Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dujiangyan, Sichuan 611830
  • Received:2018-12-29 Accepted:2019-03-05 Online:2019-03-20 Published:2019-04-09
  • Contact: Zhuang Ping

摘要:

结合作者近年来的工作, 总结了国内外有关杜鹃花属(Rhododendron)植物可育性研究的成果和进展, 旨在为相关研究者和技术人员提供参考。(1)杜鹃花属的杜鹃亚属(subgen. Rhododendron)和羊踯躅亚属(subgen. Pentanthera)中存在多倍化现象, 甚至存在同一物种有多种倍性。(2)在自然授粉条件下, 除了常见种内杂交及自交情形外, 常绿杜鹃亚属(subgen. Hymenanthes)、杜鹃亚属和映山红亚属(subgen. Tsutsusi)内种间杂交十分普遍, 也有跨亚组之间的自然杂交案例。(3)杜鹃花属植物中自交亲和(self compatibility, SC)与自交不亲和(self incompatibility, SI)现象并存, 云锦杜鹃亚组(subsect. Fortunea)兼具自交败育到高可育性的所有类型, 而在映山红亚属与马银花亚属(subgen. Azaleastrum)中自交不亲和现象则更为常见。通常自交被认为是杜鹃花物种的被动适应, 但对于一些在极端气候条件下分布的局域种而言, 则可能是一种主动响应。(4)不同分类等级(亚属、组和亚组)间的人工杂交研究表明, 杂交亲和性或可育性与双亲的系统发育关系及染色体倍性具有明显的关联, 并反映在发育阶段和各项亲和力指标的变化之中。常绿杜鹃亚属与杜鹃亚属间的远缘杂交相对比较容易, 常绿杜鹃亚属与映山红亚属间、映山红亚属与杜鹃亚属的正反交、映山红亚属与羊踯躅亚属的正交以及常绿杜鹃亚属与羊踯躅亚属的正交、马银花亚属与杜鹃亚属正交等也有亲和的案例。(5)自交不亲和亲本的介入可大幅度增加种间杂交的不育比率, 并导致其由双向可育到单向不育再到双向不育方向发展。

关键词: 杜鹃花属, 多倍体, 传粉生物学, 自交, 杂交, 亲和性, 可育性

Abstract:

To provide a reference for researchers, achievements and progress in recent years on the fertility of Rhododendron in China and abroad were summarized. (1) There are polyploidy in subgen. Rhododendron and subgen. Pentanthera, and even various ploidy in the same species. (2) Under natural pollination, in addition to the common intra-specific cross- and self-fertilization, inter-specific cross-fertilization was also widespread in subgen. Hymenanthes, subgen. Rhododendron and subgen. Tsutsusi. There were also some cases of inter-subsection cross. (3) Self compatibility (SC) and self incompatibility (SI) simultaneous exist in Rhododendron. Subsect. Fortunea shows all types from self sterile to high fertility. Self incompatibility often occurs in subgen. Tsutsusi and subgen. Azaleastrum and although self-fertilization is usually considered to be a passive adaptation, it could be an active response to the adverse environmental conditions for a few local species. (4) Through artificial crosses between different taxa (subgenera, sections and subsections), the inter-specific crossability was obviously relevant to the relationship of phylogenetic development and chromosomal ploidy of parents. This was reflected in the changes of indices of compatibility in different phases of development and was discovered that hybridization was easier between distant subgen. Hymenanthes and subgen. Rhododendron. There were also some cases of compatibility such as the reciprocal crosses between subgen. Hymenanthes and subgen. Tsutsusi, subgen. Tsutsusi and subgen. Rhododendron as well as the unidirectional compatibility between subgen. Tsutsusi and subgen. Pentanthera, subgen. Hymenanthes and subgen. Pentanthera, subgen. Azaleastrum and subgen. Rhododendron. (5) It leads to increases in the fertility and development from bidirectional fertility to unidirectional sterility and then bidirectional sterility in inter-specific cross as SI parents get involved.

Key words: Rhododendron, polyploid, pollination biology, self-fertilization, hybridization, compatibility, fertility