生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (4): 419-432.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018316

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

转基因玉米对田间节肢动物群落多样性的影响

马燕婕1, 何浩鹏1, 沈文静2, 刘标2, *(), 薛堃1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    2 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-23 接受日期:2019-02-28 出版日期:2019-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘标,薛堃 E-mail:liubiao@nies.org;xuekun@muc.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    转基因生物新品种培育重大专项(2016ZX08012005);环保公益性行业科研专项(201509044);中央民族大学一流大学一流学科项目(Yldxxk201819)

Effects of transgenic maize on arthropod diversity

Ma Yanjie1, He Haopeng1, Shen Wenjing2, Liu Biao2, *(), Xue Kun1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2018-11-23 Accepted:2019-02-28 Online:2019-04-20
  • Contact: Liu Biao,Xue Kun E-mail:liubiao@nies.org;xuekun@muc.edu.cn

通过对转基因耐除草剂(EPSPS)抗虫(Cry1Ab)玉米转化体‘DBN9936’、受体玉米‘DBN318’、常规玉米‘先玉335’和喷施除草剂的转化体‘DBN9936’玉米田中节肢动物种类及数量的调查, 评价转基因玉米对田间节肢动物群落多样性的影响。2015年和2017年我们采用直接观察法、陷阱调查法和剖秆法对田间节肢动物进行调查, 采用聚类分析、物种累积曲线等方法对数据进行分析, 并比较了4个处理玉米田节肢动物群落的Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数、优势集中性指数和群落相似性指数的差异及其随时间变化的规律。调查期间共记录节肢动物20目80科; 转化体玉米‘DBN9936’ (2015: 10.3 ± 2.6头, 2017: 3.3 ± 1.7头)和喷施除草剂的转化体玉米‘DBN9936’ (2015: 6.0 ± 1.5头, 2017: 17.0 ± 0.6头)上鳞翅目昆虫的数量明显低于受体‘DBN318’ (2015: 20.0 ± 3.2头, 2017: 24.0 ± 6.0头)和‘先玉335’ (2015: 21.0 ± 8.9头, 2017: 26.7 ± 2.0头); 物种累积曲线呈典型的抛物线, 各类玉米田间总体物种丰富度差异较小; 玉米生育期节肢动物调查结果累计数量的功能团组成及其丰富度、多样性、均匀度、优势集中性间均无明显的差异, 各类指数随时间变化的动态趋于一致, 群落间相似性程度较高。转基因玉米‘DBN9936’对鳞翅目害虫有明显的抗性, 对非靶标节肢动物无显著的影响, 对田间节肢动物的群落多样性、均匀度、丰富度、优势集中性等没有明显的影响。

关键词: 转基因玉米, 生物多样性, 节肢动物, 多样性指数, 生物安全

The species and numbers of arthropods in fields of transgenic herbicide-tolerant (EPSPS) and insect-resistant (Cry1Ab) maize DBN9936, receptor maize DBN318, conventional maize Xianyu 335, and spraying herbicide transformant DBN9936, were investigated to assess the effect of genetically modified maize on the arthropod communities. Direct observations, pit-fall trapping and longitudinal section methods were used to investigate the field arthropod species in 2015 and 2017. A cluster analysis and species accumulation curves, as well as the Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index, Pielou evenness index, dominant concentration index, community similarity index, were calculated and compared. The recorded arthropod species belonged to 20 orders and 80 families. The number of Lepidopteron insects in the fields of herbicide-free transformant DBN9936 (2015: 10.3 ± 2.6, 2017: 3.3 ± 1.7) and transformant DBN9936 spraying herbicides (2015: 6.0 ± 1.5, 2017: 17.0 ± 0.6) were significantly lower than the corresponding parameters of receptor DBN318 (2015: 20.0 ± 3.2, 2017: 24.0 ± 6.0) and Xianyu 335 (2015: 21.0 ± 8.9, 2017: 26.7 ± 2.0). The species accumulation curves show a typical parabola and there was little difference in the overall species richness. There were no significant differences in the total number of arthropods, functional group composition, richness, diversity, evenness and dominant concentration in the maize fields and there was a high similarity between the arthropods communities. The dynamic of the richness index, diversity index, evenness index, dominant concentration index and community similarity index of those arthropods in the maize fields tended to be consistent. Transformant DBN9936 has obvious resistance to Lepidopteron insects and has no significant negative effects on non-target arthropods. The results suggest that the transformant DBN9936 maize has no significant effect on community richness, diversity, evenness and dominance concentration of arthropods in the fields.

Key words: genetically modified maize, biodiversity, arthropods, diversity index, biosafety

表1

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理上节肢动物各功能群中主要类群的累积数量(头/50株)"

功能群
Functional groups
主要类群
Major groups
‘DBN9936’ ‘DBN318’ ‘先玉335’
Xianyu 335
‘DBN9936’喷除草剂
DBN9936 + herbicide
P
2015
主要害虫
Main pest
鳞翅目 Lepidopteron 10.3 ± 2.6a 20.0 ± 3.2a 21.0 ± 8.9a 6.0 ± 1.5a 0.166
长角?科 Entomobryidae 112.3 ± 25.5a 105.7 ± 9.9a 128.3 ± 11.3a 113.7 ± 8.1a 0.765
蚜科 Aphididae 834.0 ± 206.6a 763.3 ± 118.3a 515.7 ± 62.1a 590.0 ± 84.3a 0.341
叶甲科 Chrysomelidae 1,194.0 ± 94.4b 1,308.7 ± 32.9b 1,009.7 ± 56.4a 1,217.3 ± 42.9b 0.047
总和 Total 2,212.3 ± 266.9a 2,258.0 ± 154.5a 1,736.0 ± 37.8a 1,985.7 ± 109.9a 0.176
捕食性天敌
Predatory natural enemy
蜘蛛目 Araneida 43.7 ± 4.6a 52.3 ± 2.2a 59.3 ± 3.8a 54.3 ± 7.7a 0.246
瓢虫科 Coccinellidae 113.7 ± 6.1a 106.3 ± 11.2a 104.3 ± 7.9a 120.0 ± 15.1a 0.720
草蛉科 Chrysopidae 36.3 ± 6.2a 32.3 ± 2.8a 25.3 ± 4.1a 25.3 ± 4.1a 0.288
步甲科 Carabidae 12.7 ± 2.9a 15.0 ± 3.2a 20.7 ± 9.9a 20.0 ± 6.5a 0.808
总和 Total 214.7 ± 8.6a 213.3 ± 10.3a 219.7 ± 3.8a 231.0 ± 5.5a 0.386
寄生性天敌
Parasitic natural enemy
总和 Total 8.7 ± 3.3a 6.7 ± 1.9a 5.7 ± 0.9a 7.7 ± 0.9a 0.742
中性节肢动物
Neutral arthropod
总和 Total 206.7 ± 31.5a 177.7 ± 9.0a 152.0 ± 28.6a 147.0 ± 20.4a 0.339
2017
主要害虫
Main pest
鳞翅目 Lepidopteron 3.3 ± 1.7a 24.0 ± 6.0b 26.7 ± 2.0b 17.0 ± 0.6a 0.005
蚜科 Aphididae 5,357.0 ± 148.5a 5,408.3 ± 324.9a 5,444.0 ± 607.7a 4,751.7 ± 171.3a 0.520
叶甲科 Chrysomelidae 42.3 ± 3.8a 51.0 ± 4.6a 40.0 ± 3.5a 46.7 ± 1.5a 0.213
长角?科 Entomobryidae 86.3 ± 9.8a 95.0 ± 12.5a 93.4 ± 6.6a 97.0 ± 10.0a 0.882
总和 Total 5,880.7 ± 133.5a 5,974.7 ± 334.9a 6,011.7 ± 592.7a 5,321.7 ± 185.8a 0.526
捕食性天敌
Predatory natural enemy
蜘蛛目 Araneida 87.0 ± 8.5a 97.7 ± 12.1a 88.0 ± 3.5a 86.3 ± 5.2a 0.732
瓢虫科 Coccinellidae 235.7 ± 8.7a 211.3 ± 34.0a 221.3 ± 21.9a 250.7 ± 10.4a 0.607
草蛉科 Chrysopidae 51.0 ± 6.5a 41.0 ± 7.0a 39.0 ± 3.5a 54.0 ± 6.7a 0.295
步甲科 Carabidae 36.7 ± 4.5a 49.7 ± 7.5a 39.0 ± 5.6a 45.7 ± 7.1a 0.481
小花蝽 Orius sauteri 57.3 ± 2.3b 36.7 ± 4.3a 39.7 ± 0.9a 39.7 ± 6.8a 0.029
总和 Total 510.7 ± 22.0a 481.3 ± 15.2a 476.7 ± 23.7a 522.0 ± 11.8a 0.298
寄生性天敌
Parasitic natural enemy
总和 Total 7.3 ± 1.8a 9.0 ± 3.8a 8.0 ± 0.6a 7.0 ± 2.0a 0.933
中性节肢动物
Neutral arthropod
总和 Total 166.7 ± 22.0a 181.0 ± 8.6a 150.7 ± 5.5a 153.3 ± 25.2a 0.613

图1

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理节肢动物的物种累积曲线"

表2

2015年和2017年不同玉米处理上节肢动物物种丰富度"

ACE
指数
ACE Index
Bootstrap
指数
Bootstrap Index
Jackknife 1
指数
Jackknife 1
Index
实际物
种数
Number
of species
比例
Ratio (%)
2015
植株
Maize plant
51.49 54.25 58.88 48 88.87
地表
Land surface
58.26 51.41 54.96 49 88.25
总体 Total 66.61 65.33 70.96 61 90.56
2017
植株
Maize plant
71.07 71.32 72.97 68 95.11
地表
Land surface
78.65 64.66 72.81 59 80.98
总体 Total 93.36 88.45 93.95 83 89.92

图2

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理节肢动物群落物种丰富度动态"

图3

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理节肢动物群落相似性指数动态"

图4

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理上节肢动物群落聚类结果。每个玉米处理具有3个重复试验, 节肢动物种类和数量的相似度越高的样地, 其聚类支靠的越近。"

图5

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理上田间节肢动物群落多样性指数动态"

图6

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理上田间节肢动物群落Pielou均匀度指数动态"

图7

2015年和2017年4个玉米处理上田间节肢动物群落优势集中性指数动态"

表3

2015年和2017年4个处理玉米的亚洲玉米螟和棉铃虫为害情况"

为害指标 Damage parameter and degree ‘DBN9936’ ‘DBN318’ ‘先玉335’
Xianyu 335
‘DBN9936’喷除草剂
DBN9936 + herbicide
2015
蛀孔数(个/50株) Number of apertures every 50 plants 0.0 ± 0.0b 14.3 ± 1.2a 22.0 ± 4.0a 0.0 ± 0.0b
活虫数(头/50株) Number of alive borers every 50 plants 0.3 ± 0.3b 10.3 ± 1.0a 12.5 ± 1.9a 0.3 ± 0.3b
最长隧道长度 Maximum tunnel length (cm) 0.0 16.5 13.0 0.0
平均隧道长度 Average tunnel length (cm) - 6.50 ± 0.56b 4.97 ± 0.40a -
最长穗尖被害长度 Maximum damage length of spike tip (cm) 5.5 7.0 8.0 4.0
平均穗尖被害长度 Average damage length of spike tip (cm) 2.33 ± 1.59a 3.01 ± 0.21a 2.98 ± 0.20a 1.94 ± 0.39a
2017
蛀孔数(个/50株) Number of apertures every 50 plants 8.0 ± 7.9a 16.0 ± 8.1a 8.7 ± 2.4a 5.3 ± 1.8a
活虫数(头/50株) Number of alive borers every 50 plants 3.3 ± 0.3a 10.7 ± 0.5a 6.0 ± 0.1a 2.7 ± 0.2a
最长隧道长度 Maximum tunnel length (cm) 13.5 20.0 20.8 7.0
平均隧道长度 Average tunnel length (cm) 2.97 ± 2.97a 5.92 ± 2.87a 3.68 ± 4.06a 0.87 ± 0.49a
最长穗尖被害长度 Maximum damage length of spike tip (cm) 9.0 27.4 22.8 16.8
平均穗尖被害长度 Average damage length of spike tip (cm) 2.39 ± 1.74a 6.24 ± 1.23a 8.18 ± 2.36a 3.76 ± 3.42a
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