生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 648-657.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018296

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

赣江水系大型底栖动物多样性与受胁因子初探

邢圆1, 4, 吴小平2, 欧阳珊2, 张君倩1, 徐靖3, 银森录3, 谢志才1, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院水生生物研究所水生生物多样性与资源保护研究中心, 武汉 430072
    2 南昌大学生命科学与食品工程学院, 南昌 330000
    3 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
    4 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-05 接受日期:2019-04-24 出版日期:2019-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 谢志才 E-mail:zhcxie@ihb.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项(2017HB2096001006);国家自然科学基金(41571495);科技部科技基础专项(2015FY110400-4);中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDRW-ZS-2017-3-2)

Assessment of macrobenthos biodiversity and potential human-induced stressors in the Ganjiang River system

Xing Yuan1, 4, Wu Xiaoping2, Ouyang Shan2, Zhang Junqian1, Xu Jing3, Yin Senlu3, Xie Zhicai1, *()   

  1. 1 Center for Aquatic Biodiversity and Resource Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 School of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330000
    3 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2018-11-05 Accepted:2019-04-24 Online:2019-06-20
  • Contact: Xie Zhicai E-mail:zhcxie@ihb.ac.cn

赣江是长江的第七大支流, 孕育了极为丰富的大型底栖动物多样性, 而相关的研究明显不足。基于文献调研和2016-2017年现场调查, 本研究系统评估了赣江水系大型底栖动物多样性及其受胁因素。共记录底栖动物5门10纲27目95科204属330种(历史记录138种, 2016-2017年记录267种)。历史记录中国特有软体动物计48种(腹足类17种, 双壳类31种), 目前记录32种。优势种主要是一些耐污种和广布种。中游支流的密度、生物量和丰富度指数要高于赣江干流、上游支流和下游支流。典范对应分析结果表明, 底栖动物的分布主要受海拔、基质、流速、浊度、挖沙等环境因子以及不同尺度空间因子的驱动。偏CCA结果显示, 环境过滤对群落结构的影响高于空间过程。本研究结果可为赣江流域水生生物的保护和管理提供科学依据。

关键词: 赣江, 大型底栖动物, 群落结构, 生物多样性, 典范对应分析

The Ganjiang River is the seventh-largest first-level tributary of the Yangtze River, and knowledge is limited about the river’s macrobenthos assemblages. Here, we carried out a comprehensive assessment of macrobenthos species diversity in the river system, and then identified the potential drivers of the observed community patterns based on combined datasets of available historical records and field investigations from 2016-2017. A total of 330 species have been recorded to date, including 138 from the historical record and an additional 267 from the 2016-2017 investigations. In particular, this river network harbors a high array of mollusk diversity, with 17 gastropods and 31 bivalves endemic to China while 32 molluscs endemic to China were recorded in the 2016-2017 investigations. The dominant species in the Ganjiang River can tolerate pollutants. The density, biomass and richness index of branches of midstream were all higher than those of main stream, branches of the upstream and branches of the downstream. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that five environmental factors (substrate, sand-excavating, altitude, turbidity, velocity) and four spatial factors (PCNM1, PCNM11, PCNM12, PCNM15) were the key drivers structuring macrobenthos community variation. The variation partitioning analysis indicated that the environmental factors had a stronger effect on macrobenthos communities than the spatial factors. This study provides useful information to enhance the conservation of benthic biodiversity in the Ganjiang River.

Key words: Ganjiang River, macrobenthos, community structure, biodiversity, canonical correspondence analysis

图1

赣江水系大型底栖动物调查样点分布示意图"

表1

赣江水系不同河段环境因子的均值和标准差"

干流
Main stream
上游支流
Branches of the upstream
中游支流
Branches of the midstream
下游支流
Branches of the downstream
卡方检验
Chi-square test (χ2)
P
水温 Water temperature (℃) 23.0 ± 6.4 22.8 ± 5.4 20.3 ± 6.4 22.3 ± 7.1 6.00 0.111
电导率 Conductivity (μs/cm) 116.7 ± 44.7 92.4 ± 49.4 98.5 ± 69.8 249.2 ± 33.3 45.34 <0.001*
河宽 Channel width (m) 608.40 ± 437.20 114.12 ± 65.66 82.71 ± 52.51 92.58 ± 28.02 61.25 <0.001*
流速 Current velocity (m/s) 0.28 ± 0.25 0.35 ± 0.31 0.45 ± 0.36 0.29 ± 0.38 6.71 0.082
海拔 Altitude (m) 75.76 ± 66.37 188.87 ± 36.57 303.00 ± 251.12 53.00 ± 21.86 83.48 <0.001*
基质 Substrate 8.00 ± 4.73 10.00 ± 5.41 12.57 ± 5.44 9.67 ± 6.51 12.12 0.007*
浊度 Turbidity (NTU) 15.18 ± 8.76 20.06 ± 32.33 10.14 ± 6.94 9.47 ± 5.62 8.69 0.034*
矿化度 Mineralization (mg/L) 75.61 ± 28.68 59.03 ± 33.34 51.55 ± 33.51 161.33 ± 21.82 50.56 <0.001*
溶氧 Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 9.03 ± 1.45 9.10 ± 1.26 9.49 ± 1.00 8.68 ± 1.41 2.63 0.452
pH 6.34 ± 0.84 6.20 ± 1.07 6.26 ± 0.77 6.31 ± 0.90 0.37 0.946
总氮 Total nitrogen (mg/L) 1.71 ± 0.88 1.33 ± 1.03 1.47 ± 0.98 2.34 ± 1.35 17.54 0.001*
硝态氮 Nitrate (mg/L) 1.25 ± 0.51 0.90 ± 0.86 0.67 ± 0.24 1.18 ± 0.52 40.14 <0.001*
氨氮 Ammonia nitrogen (mg/L) 0.10 ± 0.15 0.08 ± 0.13 0.06 ± 0.08 0.07 ± 0.08 1.81 0.613
亚硝态氮 Nitrites (mg/L) 0.05 ± 0.15 0.01 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.14 0.07 ± 0.08 28.96 <0.001*
总磷 Total phosphorus (mg/L) 0.23 ± 0.25 0.18 ± 0.24 0.18 ± 0.21 0.18 ± 0.18 5.81 0.121
正磷酸盐 Phosphate (mg/L) 0.06 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.07 0.05 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.03 11.71 0.008*
化学需氧量 (Chemical oxygen demand, COD) (mg/L) 2.86 ± 1.51 2.32 ± 0.69 3.41 ± 3.39 3.16 ± 0.53 12.52 0.006*
硬度 Hardness (mg/L) 44.87 ± 14.92 36.42 ± 16.04 41.71 ± 26.28 106.07 ± 12.88 48.99 <0.001*

图2

赣江水系各河段大型底栖动物群落密度(a)、生物量(b)、丰富度指数(c)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(d)、Simpson优势度指数(e)和Pielou均匀度指数(f)"

表2

赣江水系不同河段大型底栖动物群落优势种的密度百分比"

全流域
Ganjiang River
(%)
干流
Main stream
上游支流
Branches of the upstream
中游支流
Branches of the midstream
下游支流
Branches of the downstream
多毛管水蚓 Aulodrilus pluriseta - - - 10.40 -
霍甫水丝蚓 Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri 14.17 18.69 - 20.24 6.32
梯形多足摇蚊 Polypedilum scalaenum - 7.74 - - -
瓦莱直突摇蚊 Orthocladius vaillanti - - - - 10.12
三带环足摇纹 Cricotopus trifascia 5.98 - - - 20.63
狭溪泥甲属一种 Stenelmis sp. 5.31 - 5.45 5.28 8.84
缺纹石蛾属一种 Potamyia sp. - - 13.33 - -
管石蛾科一种 Psychomyiidae sp. - - 5.03 - -
环棱螺属一种 Bellamya sp. - - - - 10.23
方格短沟蜷 Semisulcospira cancellata - - - - 6.13
湖沼股蛤 Limnoperna lacustris - 6.61 - 6.90 -
河蚬 Corbicula fluminea 6.11 8.92 8.35 8.16 -

表3

赣江水系大型底栖动物群落结构与环境因子及空间因子关系的典范对应分析(CCA)结果"

F P 第1轴 Axis 1 第2轴 Axis 2 第3轴 Axis 3 第4轴 Axis 4
环境因子 Environmental factors
基质 Substrate 2.12 0.001 0.374 0.028 0.006 0.176
挖沙强度 Sand-excavating 1.6 0.001 0.267 -0.322 0.579 0.681
海拔 Altitude 1.52 0.004 0.295 0.283 -0.093 0.597
浊度 Turbidity 1.43 0.011 -0.275 -0.001 -0.150 -0.013
流速 Velocity 1.36 0.046 0.270 -0.802 0.291 -0.696
空间因子 Spatial factors
微尺度 PCNM11 1.67 0.002 -0.237 -0.351 -0.211 0.133
大尺度 PCNM1 1.63 0.001 -0.147 0.384 0.676 -0.480
微尺度 PCNM15 1.48 0.015 0.148 0.256 -0.311 0.306
微尺度 PCNM12 1.37 0.018 0.081 -0.274 0.291 0.004

图3

赣江水系大型底栖动物群落分布与关键环境因子及空间因子的典范对应分析(CCA)排序图"

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