生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 211-218.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018255

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神农架国家公园植物采集史及模式标本名录

谢丹1, 2, 王玉琴3, 张小霜3, 4, 吴玉5, 杨敬元6, 张代贵3, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2 中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京 100049
    3 吉首大学生物资源与环境科学学院, 湖南吉首 416000
    4 中国科学院昆明植物研究所, 云南昆明 650201
    5 湖南师范大学生命科学学院, 湖南长沙 410081
    6 神农架国家公园管理局, 湖北神农架 442421
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-21 接受日期:2019-01-30 出版日期:2019-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 张代贵 E-mail:zdg634278@126.com
  • 基金项目:
    湖北省技术创新重大专项(2018ACA132);神农架金丝猴保育生物湖北省重点实验室开放性课题基金(2018SNJ0009);国家标本资源共享平台植物子平台项目(2005DKA21401)

A catalogue of plant type specimens and history of plant collecting in Shennongjia National Park

Xie Dan1, 2, Wang Yuqin3, Zhang Xiaoshuang3, 4, Wu Yu5, Yang Jingyuan6, Zhang Daigui3, *()   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou, Hunan 416000
    4 Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650201
    5 College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081
    6 Administration of Shennongjia National Park, Shennongjia, Hubei 442421
  • Received:2018-09-21 Accepted:2019-01-30 Online:2019-02-20
  • Contact: Zhang Daigui E-mail:zdg634278@126.com

本文基于标本及文献数据对神农架国家公园高等植物标本采集史进行简要概述。该地区有着近140年的标本采集历史, 最早对神农架地区进行植物标本采集的是爱尔兰植物学家Augustine Henry。中国科学院武汉植物园标本馆(HIB)收藏了采自该地区的21,402份标本, 居首位; 其次为中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(PE) 16,483份、华中农业大学博物馆(CCAU) 1,851份。标本采集年份主要集中在1956-1959、1976-1981、1985-1987三个时间段, 其中以1976年采集数量为最多。标本采集月份主要集中在4-11月, 8月采集量最大。不同植物的标本数量两极分化严重, 标本量多的如桦叶荚蒾(Viburnum betulifolium), 高达295份, 然而有612种植物的标本量仅1份, 约2/3的植物标本量少于10份。因而, 在今后的采集工作中我们应该将重心置于标本数量不足的物种和类群, 而标本数量过剩的类群则应减少或停止采集; 植物标本的采集过程应尽可能全覆盖, 突出对高海拔、峡谷、石壁、无人区等特殊生境的调查。采集时间上应该注重春、冬二季。此外, 我们对该地区的维管植物模式标本进行了考证, 编制了《神农架国家公园维管植物模式标本名录》。该地区共有维管植物模式标本39种2变种3变型, 隶属24科34属。对神农架国家公园维管植物模式标本的整理为履行联合国教科文组织世界遗产中心的要求及进一步开展神农架遗产的管理与保护提供了依据。

关键词: 分类学, 湖北, 模式标本, 新种, 标本馆

Here we provide a brief overview of the history of higher plant collection in the Shennongjia National Park based on a literature review and specimen data. The local history of collecting dates back 140 years to when Irish botanist Augustine Henry first visited the area. Since then, 21,402 specimens collected in the Shennongjia region have been added to the herbarium of the Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (HIB); 16,483 specimens are in the herbarium of the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (PE) and 1,851 specimens are in the museum of Huazhong Agricultural University (CCAU). Most of the specimens were collected during three periods: 1956-1959, 1976-1981, and 1985-1987; with a peak of collecting in 1976. Most specimens were collected between April and November, with August being the month with maximum collection. The number of specimens of each varies greatly, from the 295 specimens of Viburnum betulifolium to a single specimen of 612 species; nearly 2/3 of the species are represented by fewer than ten specimens. Thus, more effort should be focus on collecting insufficiently sampled taxa rather than on those already well represented. All areas should be covered as thoroughly as possible, especially difficult to reach habitats at high elevations, in valleys, on cliffs, and in less-populated areas. Additional fieldwork should be undertaken in less favorable growing seasons, such as in winter and early spring. Thirty nine species, two varieties, and three forms, representing 34 genera in 24 families have been described from Shennongjia. The checklist provides references for meeting the requirements for United Nations World Natural Heritage Site status and for its management and conservation.

Key words: taxonomy, Hubei, type specimens, new species, herbarium

图1

神农架标本采集年份统计"

图2

神农架标本采集月份统计"

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